6,428 research outputs found

    Liquid Rocket Engine Turbopump Rotating-shaft Seals

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    A monograph is organized and presents, for effective use in design, the significant experience and knowledge accumulated in development and operational programs to date. It reviews and assesses current practices, and from them establishes firm guidance for achieving greater consistency in design, increased reliability in the end product, and greater efficiency in the design effort. The monograph is divided into two major sections: state of the art and design criteria

    Solid rocket motor internal insulation

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    Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented

    Glossary of terms and table of conversion factors used in design of chemical propulsion systems

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    The glossary presented is based entirely on terms used in the monographs on Chemical Propulsion. Significant terms relating to material properties and to material fabrication are presented. The terms are arranged in alphabetical order, with multiple word terms appearing in the normal sequence of usage; for example, ablative cooling appears as such, not as cooling, ablative, and lip seal appears as such, not as seal, lip. Conversion Factors for converting U.S. customary units to the International System of Units are presented in alphabetical order of the physical quantity (e.g., density, heat flux, specific impulse) involved

    Solid rocket motor nozzles

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    The steps in the nozzle design process are examined. The nozzle designer's role in defining design requirements and constraints is included along with discussions of each of the three basic phases of the nozzle design process itself: (1) aerodynamic design, in which the gas-contacting surfaces are configured to produce the required performance within the envelope limits; (2) thermal design, in which termal liners and thermal insulators are selected and configured to maintain the surfaces as closely as practical against effects of erosion and to limit the structure temperature to acceptable levels; and (3) structural design, in which materials are selected and configured to support the thermal components and to sustain the predicted loads. Analytical techniques that are used to establish thermal and structural design integrity and to predict nozzle performance are discussed along with methods for nozzle quality assurance. Emphasis is placed on nozzle design and materials for modern high-temperature aluminized propellants. Recurring nozzle design problems of graphite cracking and ejection, differential erosion at material interfaces, lack of sufficient proven nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques, the uncertainty of adhesive bonding, and inadequate definition of material properties, particularly at high temperatures are considered

    Liquid rocket engine axial-flow turbopumps

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    The axial pump is considered in terms of the total turbopump assembly. Stage hydrodynamic design, pump rotor assembly, pump materials for liquid hydrogen applications, and safety factors as utilized in state of the art pumps are among the topics discussed. Axial pump applications are included

    Eulerian simulation of the fluid dynamics of helicopter brownout

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    A computational model is presented that can be used to simulate the development of the dust cloud that can be entrained into the air when a helicopter is operated close to the ground in desert or dusty conditions. The physics of this problem, and the associated pathological condition known as ‘brownout’ where the pilot loses situational awareness as a result of his vision being occluded by dust suspended in the flow around the helicopter, is acknowledged to be very complex. The approach advocated here involves an approximation to the full dynamics of the coupled particulate-air system. Away from the ground, the model assumes that the suspended particles remain in near equilibrium under the action of aerodynamic forces. Close to the ground, this model is replaced by an algebraic sublayer model for the saltation and entrainment process. The origin of the model in the statistical mechanics of a distribution of particles governed by aerodynamic forces allows the validity of the method to be evaluated in context by comparing the physical properties of the suspended particulates to the local properties of the flow field surrounding the helicopter. The model applies in the Eulerian frame of reference of most conventional Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and has been coupled with Brown’s Vorticity Transport Model. Verification of the predictions of the coupled model against experimental data for particulate entrainment and transport in the flow around a model rotor are encouraging. An application of the coupled model to analyzing the differences in the geometry and extent of the dust clouds that are produced by single main rotor and tandem-rotor configurations as they decelerate to land has shown that the location of the ground vortex and the size of any regions of recirculatory flow, should they exist, play a primary role in governing the extent of the dust cloud that is created by the helicopter

    On the alpha activity of natural tungsten isotopes

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    The indication for the alpha decay of 180-W with a half-life T1/2=1.1+0.8-0.4(stat)+-0.3(syst)x10^18 yr has been observed for the first time with the help of the super-low background 116-CdWO_4 crystal scintillators. In conservative approach the lower limit on half-life of 180-W has been established as T1/2>0.7x10^18 yr at 90% C.L. Besides, new T1/2 bounds were set for alpha decay of 182-W, 183-W, 184-W and 186-W at the level of 10^20 yr.Comment: 16 pages, 8 figures, accepted in Phys. Rev.

    Zum biochemischen Wirkungsmechanismus des adrenocorticotropen Hormons

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    Es wird eine Übersicht über zwei Hypothesen und die dazugehörigen Befunde zum Wirkungsmechanismus des adrenocorticotropen Hormons gegeben: 1. Der Gehalt der Nebenniere an cyclischem Adenosinmonophosphat wird durch ACTH erhöht, die stimulierende Wirkung des Hormons auf die Corticoidsynthese wird durch cyclisches Adenosinmonophosphat imitiert. Die Beschleunigung der Corticoidsynthese dürfte allerdings nicht durch eine Aktivierung der Phosphorylase in der Nebenniere erfolgen. 2. Befunde zum biochemischen Mechanismus der Stimulation der Proteinsynthese in der Nebenniere durch ACTH werden referiert. Die Intaktheit der Proteinsynthese der Nebenniere scheint für den steroidogenen Effekt des ACTH Voraussetzung zu sein.Two current hypotheses on the mechanism of action of ACTH are reviewed: 1. The content of cyclic 3,5-adenosine monophosphate of the adrenals is increased by ACTH, and cyclic AMP or ACTH enhance corticoid synthesis. However, stimulation of corticoid synthesis presumably is not mediated by activation of adrenal phosphorylase. 2. Experiments dealing with the biochemical mechanism of the stimulation of adrenal protein synthesis are reviewed. The integrity of the adrenal protein synthesis appears to be necessary for the enhancement of corticoid synthesis by ACTH

    Multi-Parameter Entanglement in Femtosecond Parametric Down-Conversion

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    A theory of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which gives rise to a quantum state that is entangled in multiple parameters, such as three-dimensional wavevector and polarization, allows us to understand the unusual characteristics of fourth-order quantum interference in many experiments, including ultrafast type-II parametric down-conversion, the specific example illustrated in this paper. The comprehensive approach provided here permits the engineering of quantum states suitable for quantum information schemes and new quantum technologies.Comment: to appear in Physical Review

    Development of cross-curricular key skills using a 3D immersive learning environment in schools

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    © Springer International Publishing AG 2017. Pedagogical opportunities offered by 3D immersive environments are not restricted to subject-based knowledge but also include non-disciplinary and cross-curricular key skills. This pilot study introduced a large 3D scene of a non-extant architectural exhibition into teaching and learning activities at three UK schools. From observation and qualitative data capture, a comparative case study identified a number of pedagogical opportunities and challenges. Despite diverse teacher and student approaches, a number of common factors were identified including constructionist teaching methods and the suitability of 3D environments for developing cross-curricular key skills and capabilities. In relation to the literature, this paper analyses how subject-aligned use of the 3D model met with differing levels of success, identifies four key skills that emerged from student use of the model across all three schools, and considers how challenges might be translated into further learning opportunities
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