27,603 research outputs found

    Reducing contact resistance at semiconductor to metal or aluminum to metal interfaces

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    Etchant containing chloroplatinous or chloroplatinic acid greatly reduces contact resistance between metallic surfaces. Etching results in a monolayer plating of platinum on the wafer surface, preventing oxide growth

    Complementary-MOS binary counter with parallel-set inputs

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    Metal oxide semiconductor four-stage binary counter contains reset capability as well as four parallel-set inputs gated in by a logic signal. Parallel-set inputs permit setting the counter into any of sixteen possible states

    Design and development of a digital subsystem employing n and p-channel Mos Fet's in complementary circuits in an integrated circuit array Final report, 1 May 1967 - 30 Apr. 1968

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    Digital subsystem design and development employing n-channel and p-channel in MOS FET units in complimentary circuits in integrated circuit arra

    Lattice and polarizability mediated spin activity in EuTiO_3

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    EuTiO_3 is shown to exhibit novel strong spin-charge-lattice coupling deep in the paramagnetic phase. Its existence is evidenced by an, until now, unknown response of the paramagnetic susceptibility at temperatures exceeding the structural phase transition temperature T_S = 282K. The "extra" features in the susceptibility follow the rotational soft zone boundary mode temperature dependence above and below T_S. The theoretical modeling consistently reproduces this behavior and provides reasoning for the stabilization of the soft optic mode other than quantum fluctuations.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figure

    An assessment of key model parametric uncertainties in projections of Greenland Ice Sheet behavior

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    Lack of knowledge about the values of ice sheet model input parameters introduces substantial uncertainty into projections of Greenland Ice Sheet contributions to future sea level rise. Computer models of ice sheet behavior provide one of several means of estimating future sea level rise due to mass loss from ice sheets. Such models have many input parameters whose values are not well known. Recent studies have investigated the effects of these parameters on model output, but the range of potential future sea level increases due to model parametric uncertainty has not been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that this range is large, using a 100-member perturbed-physics ensemble with the SICOPOLIS ice sheet model. Each model run is spun up over 125 000 yr using geological forcings and subsequently driven into the future using an asymptotically increasing air temperature anomaly curve. All modeled ice sheets lose mass after 2005 AD. Parameters controlling surface melt dominate the model response to temperature change. After culling the ensemble to include only members that give reasonable ice volumes in 2005 AD, the range of projected sea level rise values in 2100 AD is ~40 % or more of the median. Data on past ice sheet behavior can help reduce this uncertainty, but none of our ensemble members produces a reasonable ice volume change during the mid-Holocene, relative to the present. This problem suggests that the model's exponential relation between temperature and precipitation does not hold during the Holocene, or that the central-Greenland temperature forcing curve used to drive the model is not representative of conditions around the ice margin at this time (among other possibilities). Our simulations also lack certain observed physical processes that may tend to enhance the real ice sheet's response. Regardless, this work has implications for other studies that use ice sheet models to project or hindcast the behavior of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Aerospace applications of SINDA/FLUINT at the Johnson Space Center

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    SINDA/FLUINT has been found to be a versatile code for modeling aerospace systems involving single or two-phase fluid flow and all modes of heat transfer. Several applications of SINDA/FLUINT are described in this paper. SINDA/FLUINT is being used extensively to model the single phase water loops and the two-phase ammonia loops of the Space Station Freedom active thermal control system (ATCS). These models range from large integrated system models with multiple submodels to very detailed subsystem models. An integrated Space Station ATCS model has been created with ten submodels representing five water loops, three ammonia loops, a Freon loop and a thermal submodel representing the air loop. The model, which has approximately 800 FLUINT lumps and 300 thermal nodes, is used to determine the interaction between the multiple fluid loops which comprise the Space Station ATCS. Several detailed models of the flow-through radiator subsystem of the Space Station ATCS have been developed. One model, which has approximately 70 FLUINT lumps and 340 thermal nodes, provides a representation of the ATCS low temperature radiator array with two fluid loops connected only by conduction through the radiator face sheet. The detailed models are used to determine parameters such as radiator fluid return temperature, fin efficiency, flow distribution and total heat rejection for the baseline design as well as proposed alternate designs. SINDA/FLUINT has also been used as a design tool for several systems using pressurized gasses. One model examined the pressurization and depressurization of the Space Station airlock under a variety of operating conditions including convection with the side walls and internal cooling. Another model predicted the performance of a new generation of manned maneuvering units. This model included high pressure gas depressurization, internal heat transfer and supersonic thruster equations. The results of both models were used to size components, such as the heaters and gas bottles and also to point to areas where hardware testing was needed

    Cretaceous-to-recent record of elevated 3He/4He along the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain

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    Helium isotopes are a robust geochemical tracer of a primordial mantle component in hot spot volcanism. The high 3He/4He (up to 35 RA, where RA is the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.39 × 10−6) of some Hawaiian Island volcanism is perhaps the classic example. New results for picrites and basalts from the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain indicate that the hot spot has produced high 3He/4He lavas for at least the last 76 million years. Picrites erupted at 76 Ma have 3He/4He (10–14 RA), which is at the lower end of the range for the Hawaiian Islands but still above the range of modern mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB; 6–10 RA). This was at a time when hot spot volcanism was occurring on thin lithosphere close to a spreading ridge and producing lava compositions otherwise nearly indistinguishable from MORB. After the hot spot and spreading center diverged during the Late Cretaceous, the hot spot produced lavas with significantly higher 3He/4He (up to 24 RA). Although 3He/4He ratios stabilized at relatively high values by 65 Ma, other chemical characteristics such as La/Yb and 87Sr/86Sr did not reach and stabilize at Hawaiian-Island-like values until ~45 Ma. Our limited 3He/4He record for the Hawaiian hot spot shows a poor correlation with plume flux estimates (calculated from bathymetry and residual gravity anomalies [Van Ark and Lin, 2004]). If 3He is a proxy for the quantity of primordial mantle material within the plume, then the lack of correlation between 3He/4He and calculated plume flux suggests that variation in primordial mantle flux is not the primary factor controlling total plume flux

    Polaron Coherence as Origin of the Pseudogap Phase in High Temperature Superconducting Cuprates

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    Within a two component approach to high Tc copper oxides including polaronic couplings, we identify the pseudogap phase as the onset of polaron ordering. This ordering persists in the superconducting phase. A huge isotope effect on the pseudogap onset temperature is predicted and in agreement with experimental data. The anomalous temperature dependence of the mean square copper oxygen ion displacement observed above, at and below Tc stems from an s-wave superconducting component of the order parameter, whereas a pure d-wave order parameter alone can be excluded.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figure