229 research outputs found

    Relationship of Media Attention to Colorectal Cancer-Related Risk Appraisals in Older Japanese Americans: Using Structural Equation Modeling to Develop an Explanatory Model

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    Objectives: The goals of this study were: (1) to explore how personal attributes and media attention are related to colorectal cancer (CRC)-related risk appraisals (i.e., causal attribution, and fatalism/misconception) among Japanese Americans at risk; and (2) to identify segments of the population that should be targeted for education programs, topics of interest, and health communication channels. Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to cross-sectionally test a proposed model derived from the Heuristic-Systematic Model (HSM) and Attribution Theory for understanding the relationship between media attention and cognitive processes related to CRC in a population-based community sample of 341 asymptomatic Japanese Americans aged 50 and over residing in the Greater New York region. Results: Accounting for 30% of the variance in risk appraisals, the data fit a model (χ²(136)=231.41,

    Progressing subglottic and tracheobronchial stenosis in a patient with CHARGE syndrome diagnosed in adulthood

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    AbstractA 33-year-old woman was admitted for a pseudocroup-like cough and wheezing after general anesthesia. Several months ago, she had undergone cardiac re-operation and turbinectomy, both of which had involved difficult intubations. Bronchoscopy indicated a pin-hall-like subglottic stenosis; therefore, emergency tracheotomy was performed. Six years later, a computed tomography scan demonstrated progressive stenosis of the entire circumference of the trachea and main bronchi. She died at 40 years. Her autopsy revealed marked tracheobronchial stenosis. She had many medical histories that had gone undiagnosed and had been clinically ill with only heart defects. She did not have coloboma but had microphthalmos, atresia choanae, retarded growth development, and deafness; thus, we diagnosed CHARGE syndrome that refers to multiple congenital anomalies, including airway abnormalities, which can lead to secondary complications such as traumatic stenosis after intubation. Physicians should have knowledge of this rare disease and should pay special attention to potential airway problems

    Crystal structures of racemic and enantiomeric 5-isopropyl-5-methylhydantoin

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    Crystal structures of racemic and enantiomeric 5-isopropyl-5-methylhydantoin (IPrMH) have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Melting temperatures and solid state infrared spectra are also measured. Racemic IPrMH has a lower melting temperature than the pure enantiomer by 25 °C. The infrared spectrum of racemic IPrMH is identical with that of the pure enantiomer. Nevertheless, the racemic IPrMH doesn’t crystallize as a conglomerate but as a racemic compound. The racemic and the enantiomeric crystals are very similar to each other in molecular geometries and intermolecular interactions. In the both cases, the molecules are connected via N−H···O hydrogen bonds to form R22(8) rings, and these rings are linked into infinite one-dimensional tapes. In the racemic crystal, a single tape is composed of single enantiomer and itself is homochiral

    Vertical distributions of plutonium isotopes in marine sediment cores off the Fukushima coast after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

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    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident led to the release of large amounts of radionuclides into the atmosphere as well as direct discharges into the sea. In contrast to the intensive studies on the distribution of the released high volatility fission products, such as 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, similar studies of the actinides, especially the Pu isotopes, are limited. To obtain the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes in marine sediments and to better assess the possible contamination of Pu from the FDNPP accident in the marine environment, we determined the activities of 239+240Pu and 241Pu as well as the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and 241Pu/239Pu in sediment core samples collected in the western North Pacific off Fukushima from July 2011 to July 2012. We also measured surface sediment samples collected from seven Japanese estuaries before the FNDPP accident to establish the comprehensive background baseline data. The observed results of both the Pu activities and the Pu atom ratios for the sediments in the western North Pacific were comparable to the baseline data, suggesting that the FDNPP accident did not cause detectable Pu contamination to the studied regions prior to the sampling time. The Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific 30 km off Fukushima coast originated from global fallout and Pacific Proving Ground close-in fallout

    舌の厚みとその臨床的意義

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    Background: The tongue occupies most of the space in the oral cavity and it plays an important role in oral functions such as mastication, swallowing and articulation. The tongue continues to move from the time of intake to swallowing, particularly during masticating. A method for evaluating tongue thickness at rest by ultrasonography has been proposed; however, the association between tongue thickness and various oral functions remains unclear. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between tongue thickness and oral functions, and to clarify the clinical significance of tongue thickness measurements in oral function maintenance. Materials and Methods: Elderly outpatients were serially screened for enrollment and a total of 106 subjects (men, 54; women, 52; mean age, 75.2±6.5 years) were selected. Age, body mass index, and functional teeth number including implant and pontic of fixed partial denture number were recorded as the basic attributes. Tongue thickness, tongue pressure, tongue thrust pressure and tongue motor function were measured as tongue assessments. Cheek pressure, oral moisture and occlusal force were measured as other oral functions. Results: Subjects with thick tongue tended to have higher BMI, stronger muscle strengths and lower diadochokinesis. Diadochokinesis of/ka/, cheek pressure and functional teeth number were extracted as the independent factors affecting tongue thickness. Conclusion: Tongue thickness does not necessarily reflect oral functions in healthy elderly people except for a negative association between tongue thickness and oral diadochokinesis of /ka/. Multiple assessments of tongue would be required to evaluate oral function, and the assessment of tongue thickness might have a different clinical meaning

    Characterization of Swallowing Sound : Preliminary Investigation of Normal Subjects

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    Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize the swallowing sound and identify the process of sound generation during swallowing in young healthy adults. Methods Thirty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled and allocated into three experimental groups. In experiment 1, a microphone was attached to one of eight cervical sites in 20 subjects, participants swallowed 5 ml water, and the sound waveform was recorded. In experiment 2, 10 subjects swallowed either 0, 5, 10, or 15 ml water during audio recording. In addition, participants consumed the 5 ml bolus in two different cervical postures. In experiment 3, the sound waveform and videofluoroscopy were simultaneously recorded while the three participants consumed 5 ml iopamidol solution. The duration and peak intensity ratio of the waveform were analyzed in all experimental groups. Results The acoustic analysis of the waveforms and videofluoroscopy suggested that the swallowing sound could be divided into three periods, each associated with a stage of the swallowing movement: the oral phase comprising posterior tongue and hyoid bone movement; the pharyngeal phase comprising larynx movement, hyoid bone elevation, epiglottis closure, and passage of the bolus through the esophagus orifice; and the repositioning phase comprising the return of the hyoid bone and larynx to their resting positions, and reopening of the epiglottis. Conclusion Acoustic analysis of swallowing sounds and videofluoroscopy suggests that the swallowing sound could be divided into three periods associated with each process of the swallowing movement: the oral phase comprising the posterior movement of the tongue and hyoid bone; the pharyngeal phase comprising the laryngeal movement, hyoid bone elevation, epiglottis closure, and the bolus passage to the esophagus orifice; and the repositioning phase comprising the repositioning of the hyoid bone and larynx, and reopening of the epiglottis

    Synthesis and crystal structure of (S)-5-isopropyl-5-methyl-2-thiohydantoin

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    (S)-5-Isopropyl-5-methyl-2-thiohydantoin was synthesized by one-pot reaction of α-methyl-L-valine and thiourea in the absence of solvent. The crystal structure of this compound has been determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. This is the first report on the crystal structure of a homochiral 5-substituted 2-thiohydantoin with the unsubstituted NH groups. This compound, C7H12N2OS crystallizes in the chiral orthorhombic space group P212121 with four molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are: a = 8.2798(12) Å, b = 8.6024(13) Å, c = 12.826(2) Å and V = 913.6(2) Å3. In the crystals, the thioamide and amide N-H of one molecule are hydrogen-bonded to the thioamide C=S group of neighboring molecules to form rings with the R22(8) graph-set motif, and these rings are linked into infinite one-dimensional tapes

    超音波検査を用いた嚥下音産生機序の解明

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    Background: Cervical auscultation is a technique frequently used for the screening of dysphagia. However, this method is difficult to evaluate objectively and it is unclear how sound is generated during the swallowing process. The aim of this study was to analyze the waveform of swallowing sound and clarify the sound production process using recordings of swallowing sounds and ultrasound images (USI), performed simultaneously. Materials and Methods: Commercial natural spring water and natural carbonated water were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In experiment 1, a microphone was attached to the skin of the neck of 20 young participants and swallowing sounds were recorded and analyzed. In experiment 2, swallowing processes in three participants were recorded by a medical ultrasonography apparatus. The ultrasonic probe was placed on the skin over one of the thyroid cartilages or the thyroid gland. Results: The swallowing sound wave (SSW) was divided into three sectional periods. The mean duration of the first, second, and third SSW was 210 ± 147 ms, 458 ± 113 ms, and 91 ± 61 ms, respectively. The mean intensity ratio of the first, second, and third SSW was 7.8 ± 5.2, 29.2 ± 16.5, and 5.8 ± 5.1, respectively. When the ultrasonic probe was placed on the skin over one of the thyroid cartilages, in the phase between the production of the second SSW and the silent period, the USI revealed an accumulation of swallowed material around the valleculae and oropharynx. In the silent period of the second SSW, the swallowed material accumulated around the hypopharynx. When the ultrasonic probe was placed on the skin over the thyroid gland, in the silent period of the second SSW, the USI revealed that the swallowed material had passed through esophagus. Conclusion: Waveform and USI findings from this study suggest that swallowing sound can be divided into three sectional periods: an oral phase, a pharyngeal phase, and a repositioning phase

    Unilateral minimal ovarian cancer with peritoneal implant and an intraepithelial carcinoma in the contralateral fallopian tube

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    Here we present postoperative pathology of an 82-year-old woman who presented with massive ascites, and an implant-like adenocarcinoma on her intrapelvic peritoneum, which revealed a minimal (<5mm) serous adenocarcinoma on her left ovary and an intraepithelial carcinoma on inner surface of her right Fallopian tube.  The left ovarian serous adenocarcinoma may have originated as an intraepithelial carcinoma on contralateral Fallopian tube

    Graduate Students’ Learning in Yogo-practice Research

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     「発達支援研究特論Ⅴ(養護教育実践研究)」は,大学で学んだ理論を学校現場で実証し,養護実践研究を行う 能力を身に付けることを目標にした授業科目である。大学院生3名の附属小・中学校における取組と課題の検討 を通じて,学びと保健室経営への参画について考察した。その結果,大学院生は異なる事例の検討を通じて,様々 な角度から課題を発見し,その対策を示すことができた。また,事例検討の過程で,自分自身が一定の役割を果 たすこと,より広い視野を持つ必要性,一人の養護教諭としての自覚をより強く持つ必要があること等に気付く ことができた。大学教員の課題として,養護実践のふりかえりの頻度を増やし,よりきめ細かくフィードバック すること等が挙げられた。このような取組は養護教諭としての資質能力の向上に有用であると考えられた。今後 は大学院生が自覚的,主体的に養護実践に取り組み,学びを検討し,共有する機会の充実が求められる
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