64 research outputs found

    A new bounding mechanism for the CNC machine scheduling problems with controllable processing times

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.In this study, we determine the upper and lower bounds for the processing time of each job under controllable machining conditions. The proposed bounding scheme is used to find a set of discrete efficient points on the efficient frontier for a bi-criteria scheduling problem on a single CNC machine. We have two objectives; minimizing the manufacturing cost (comprised of machining and tooling costs) and minimizing makespan. The technological restrictions of the CNC machine along with the job specific parameters affect the machining conditions; such as cutting speed and feed rate, which in turn specify the processing times and tool lives. Since it is well known that scheduling problems are extremely sensitive to processing time data, system resources can be utilized much more efficiently by selecting processing times appropriately. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Scheduling with tool changes to minimize total completion time under controllable machining conditions

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.Scheduling under controllable machining conditions has been studied for some time. Scheduling with tool changes, particularly due to tool wear, has just begun to receive attention. Though machining conditions impact tool wear and induce tool change, the two issues have not been considered together.We address for the first time the problem of scheduling a computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine subject to tool changes and controllable machining conditions; our objective is to minimize the total completion time of a given set of jobs. We establish an important result that helps us identify feasible settings of machining parameters such as feed rate and cutting speed. However, the problem at hand remains intractable, even when a single setting is used. In the general case, we are able to solve the problem exactly for up to 30 jobs using a mixed integer linear programming formulation. For larger problems, we turn to approximate solution via heuristics. We examine a number of different schemes. The best of these schemes are used in a problem space genetic algorithm; this produces quality solutions in a time-efficient manner, as is evidenced from an extensive computational study conducted by us. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Considering embodied energy and carbon in heritage buildings ÔÇô a review

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    Approximately 20% of UK buildings can be defined as ÔÇśheritage buildingsÔÇÖ, offering unique values that should be preserved. They tend to use more energy than newer buildings, creating a strong case for energy retrofits to reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and improve thermal comfort. However, few studies of heritage retrofits examine embodied impacts, which are the energy and carbon impacts required to manufacture, transport and construct materials and components. This study considers the whole life (embodied plus operational) impacts of retrofitting heritage buildings, through a systematic literature review and thematic analysis. It concludes that; both embodied and operational impacts should be considered in retrofitting projects, retrofitting is better than demolish and rebuild in lifecycle terms, there is a lack of policy mandating for the measurement of lifecycle impacts and low impact retrofitting can be better for conserving heritage values and reducing embodied carbon

    The Development of Practice Recommendations for Drug-Disease Interactions by Literature Review and Expert Opinion

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    Background: Drug-disease interactions negatively affect the benefit/risk ratio of drugs for specific populations. In these conditions drugs should be avoided, adjusted, or accompanied by extra monitoring. The motivation for many drug-disease interactions in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) is sometimes insufficiently supported by (accessible) evidence. As a consequence the translation of SmPC to clinical practice may lead to non-specific recommendations. For the translation of this information to the real world, it is necessary to evaluate the available knowledge about drug-disease interactions, and to formulate specific recommendations for prescribers and pharmacists. The aim of this paper is to describe a standardized method how to develop practice recommendations for drug-disease interactions by literature review and expert opinion. Methods: The development of recommendations for drug-disease interactions will follow a six-step plan involving a multidisciplinary expert panel (1). The scope of the drug-disease interaction will be specified by defining the disease and by describing relevant effects of this drug-disease interaction. Drugs possibly involved in this drug-disease interaction are selected by checking the official product information, literature, and expert opinion (2). Evidence will be collected from the official product information, guidelines, handbooks, and primary literature (3). Study characteristics and outcomes will be evaluated and presented in standardized reports, including preliminary conclusions on the clinical relevance and practice recommendations (4). The multidisciplinary expert panel will discuss the reports and will either adopt or adjust the conclusions (5). Practice recommendations will be integrated in clinical decision support systems and published (6). The results of the evaluated drug-disease interactions will remain up-to-date by screening new risk information, periodic literature review, and (re)assessments initiated by health care providers. Actionable Recommendations: The practice recommendations will result in advices for specific DDSI. The content and considerations of these DDSIs will be published and implemented in all Clinical Decision Support Systems in the Netherlands. Discussion: The recommendations result in professional guidance in the context of individual patient care. The professional will be supported in the decision making in concerning pharmacotherapy for the treatment of a medical problem, and the clinical risks of the proposed medication in combination with specific diseases

    Measuring health-related quality of life in men with osteoporosis or osteoporotic fracture

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Osteoporosis is a serious health problem that worsens the quality of life and the survival rate of individuals with this disease on account the osteoporotic fractures. Studies have long focused on women, and its presence in men has been underestimated. While many studies conducted in different countries mainly assess health-related quality of life and identify fracture risks factors in women, few data are available on a Spanish male population.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p>Observational study.</p> <p>Study population</p> <p>Men Ôëą 40 years of age with/without diagnosed osteoporosis and with/without osteoporotic fracture included by their family doctor.</p> <p>Measurements</p> <p>The relationship between customary clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture and health-related quality of life in a Spanish male population. A telephone questionnaire on health-related quality of life is made.</p> <p>Statistical analysis</p> <p>The association between qualitative variables will be assessed by the Chi-square test. The distribution of quantitative variables by Student's t-test. If the conditions for using this test are not met, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney's U test will be used.</p> <p>The validation of the results obtained by the FRAXÔäó tool will be performed by way of the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and by calculating the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). All tests will be performed with a confidence intervals set at 95%.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>The applicability and usefulness of Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) studies are well documented in many countries. These studies allow implementing cost-effective measures in cases of a given disease and reducing the costly consequences derived therefrom. This study attempts to provide objective data on how quality of life is affected by the clinical aspects involved in osteoporosis in a Spanish male population and can be useful as well in cost utility analyses conducted by health authorities.</p> <p>The sample selected is not based on a high fracture risk group. Rather, it is composed of men in the general population, and accordingly comparisons should not lead to erroneous interpretations.</p> <p>A possible bias correction will be ensured by checking reported fractures against healthcare reports and X-rays, or by consulting health care centers as applicable.</p

    Synthesis and Structure of Trinuclear W3S4 Clusters Bearing Aminophosphine Ligands and Their Reactivity toward Halides and Pseudohalides

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    The aminophosphine ligand (2-aminoethyl)- diphenylphosphine (edpp) has been coordinated to the W3(╬╝- S)(╬╝-S)3 cluster unit to afford trimetallic complex [W3S4Br3(edpp)3]+ (1+) in a one-step synthesis process with high yields. Related [W3S4X3(edpp)3]+ clusters (X = FÔłĺ, ClÔłĺ, NCSÔłĺ; 2+Ôłĺ4+) have been isolated by treating 1+ with the corresponding halide or pseudohalide salt. The structure of complexes 1+ to 4+ contains an incomplete W3S4 cubane-type cluster unit, and only one of the possible isomers is formed: the one with the phosphorus atoms trans to the capping sulfur and the amino groups trans to the bridging sulphurs. The remaining coordination position on each metal is occupied by X. Detailed studies using stopped-flow, 31P{1H} NMR, and ESI-MS have been carried out in order to understand the solution behavior and the kinetics of interconversion among species 1+, 2+, 3+, and 4+ in solution. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been also carried out on the reactions of cluster 1+ with the different anions. The whole set of experimental and theoretical data indicate that the actual mechanism of substitutions in these clusters is strongly dependent on the nature of the leaving and entering anions. The interaction between an entering FÔłĺ and the amino group coordinated to the adjacent metal have also been found to be especially relevant to the kinetics of these reactions

    Advances in modelling of biomimetic fluid flow at different scales

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    The biomimetic flow at different scales has been discussed at length. The need of looking into the biological surfaces and morphologies and both geometrical and physical similarities to imitate the technological products and processes has been emphasized. The complex fluid flow and heat transfer problems, the fluid-interface and the physics involved at multiscale and macro-, meso-, micro- and nano-scales have been discussed. The flow and heat transfer simulation is done by various CFD solvers including Navier-Stokes and energy equations, lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics method. Combined continuum-molecular dynamics method is also reviewed
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