1,846 research outputs found

    Program comprehension for domain-specific languages

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    In the past, we have been looking for program comprehension tools that are able to interconnect operational and behavioral views, aiming at aiding the software analyst to relate problem and program domains in order to reach a full understanding of software systems. In this paper we are concerned with Program Comprehension issues applied to Domain Specific Languages (DSLs). We are now willing to understand how techniques and tools for the comprehension of traditional programming languages fit in the understanding of DSLs. Being the language tailored for the description of problems in a specific domain, we believe that specific visualizations (at a higher abstraction level, closer to the problem level) could and should be defined to enhance the comprehension of the descriptions in that particular domain.GRICE

    SiPM application for a detector for UHE neutrinos tested at Sphinx Station

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    We present the preliminary test results of the prototype detector working at Sphinx Observatory Center Jungfraujoch (similar to 3800 m a.s.l.) HFSJG Switzerland. This prototype detector is designed to measure large zenith angle showers produced by high energy neutrino interactions in the Earth crust. This station provides us an opportunity to understand if the prototype detector works safely (or not) under hard environmental conditions (the air temperature changes between 25 degrees C and 5 degrees C). The detector prototype is using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) produced by SensL and DRS4 chip as read out part. Measurements at different temperature at fixed bias voltage (similar to 29.5 V) were performed to reconstruct tracks by Time Of Flight. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Tres continentes, tres países: educación a distancia bajo la mirada de estudiantes de educación superior en tiempos de pandemia

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    The epidemiological situation on a global scale caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the general confinement of the population and the need to close the physical spaces of schools of all levels of education. To overcome this, it was necessary to adopt emergency measures, including Emergency Remote Education (ERE), using technologies to interact synchronously with students. Besides, it was also required to reconfigure educational practices and develop skills in digital literacy to enable the continuity of educational experiences, respecting isolation but maintaining the interaction of teachers and students. This situation has not met borders, so we consider it essential to collect information about the degree of student satisfaction with the (ERE) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in three countries (Portugal, Brazil and Turkey), located on three continents (Europe, America and Asia). Data were collected in 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 by the researchers who are conducting the study from different countries. The authors use a survey created on Google Forms to collect data, assuring the confidentiality of the data collected. We obtained 566 valid responses in the three countries: Portugal 140, Turkey 359 and Brazil 67. From this collection and subsequent statistical analysis, we can show, from the results obtained, that the models chosen in the three countries did not please in a unanimous way all the students involved. There are significant differences in access, knowledge of the platforms used and even in the methodologies used by different teachers concerning countries. On the contrary, about the possibility of moving to a permanent online model, there is unanimity, verifying from the opinions that face-to-face education is not replaceable by the model that has been used over the last two years.La situaci√≥n epidemiol√≥gica a escala global, provocada por la pandemia del COVID-19, ha llevado al confinamiento general de la poblaci√≥n y a la necesidad de cerrar los espacios f√≠sicos de las escuelas de todos los niveles educativos. Para superar esto, fue necesario adoptar medidas de emergencia, incluida la Educaci√≥n Remota de Emergencia (ERE), utilizando tecnolog√≠as, como un medio para interactuar, sincr√≥nicamente, con los estudiantes. Y, debido a que el tiempo es esencial, tambi√©n fue necesario reconfigurar las pr√°cticas educativas y desarrollar habilidades en el campo de la alfabetizaci√≥n digital, para permitir la continuidad de las experiencias educativas, respetando el aislamiento, pero manteniendo la interacci√≥n de maestros y estudiantes. Esta situaci√≥n no ha encontrado fronteras, por lo que consideramos importante recopilar informaci√≥n sobre el grado de satisfacci√≥n de los estudiantes en relaci√≥n con el (ERE), causado por la pandemia de COVID-19, en tres pa√≠ses (Portugal, Brasil y Turqu√≠a), ubicados en tres continentes (Europa, Am√©rica y Asia). Los datos fueron recogidos en el periodo de confinamiento, 2019/2020 y 2020/2021, por los investigadores que forman parte del estudio, procedentes de los tres pa√≠ses. Como herramienta de recogida de datos, utilizamos un cuestionario, creado en la plataforma Google Forms, aplicado online, en la que se explicaba el objetivo del estudio, se solicitaba el consentimiento informado y se garantizaba la confidencialidad de los datos recogidos. Obtuvimos 566 respuestas v√°lidas en los tres pa√≠ses, desglosadas de la siguiente manera: Portugal 140, Turqu√≠a 359 y Brasil 67. A partir de esta recogida y posterior an√°lisis estad√≠stico, podemos demostrar, a partir de los resultados obtenidos, que los modelos elegidos en los tres pa√≠ses no gustaron de forma un√°nime a todos los alumnos implicados. Existen diferencias significativas en el acceso, el conocimiento de las plataformas utilizadas e incluso en las metodolog√≠as utilizadas por los diferentes docentes en relaci√≥n con los pa√≠ses. Por el contrario, y en relaci√≥n a la posibilidad de pasar a un modelo online permanente, existe unanimidad, verificando a partir de las opiniones que la educaci√≥n presencial no es sustituible por el modelo que ha estado vigente durante los dos √ļltimos a√Īos.Universidad Pablo de Olavid

    Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

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    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing \et measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS

    Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron-Barrel Calorimeter Wedges

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    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. Data were taken both with and without a prototype electromagnetic lead tungstate crystal calorimeter (EB) in front of the hadron calorimeter. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. These measurements set the absolute calibration of the HB prior to first pp collisions to approximately 4%

    Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

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    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are in agreement. Above 30 GeV, LHEP gives a more accurate simulation of the longitudinal shower profile

    Synchronization and Timing in CMS HCAL

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    The synchronization and timing of the hadron calorimeter (HCAL) for the Compact Muon Solenoid has been extensively studied with test beams at CERN during the period 2003-4, including runs with 40 MHz structured beam. The relative phases of the signals from different calorimeter segments are timed to 1 ns accuracy using a laser and equalized using programmable delay settings in the front-end electronics. The beam was used to verify the timing and to map out the entire range of pulse shapes over the 25 ns interval between beam crossings. These data were used to make detailed measurements of energy-dependent time slewing effects and to tune the electronics for optimal performance

    Design, Performance and Calibration of the CMS Forward Calorimeter Wedges

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    We report on the test beam results and calibration methods using charged particles of the CMS Forward Calorimeter (HF). The HF calorimeter covers a large pseudorapidity region (3\l |\eta| \le 5), and is essential for large number of physics channels with missing transverse energy. It is also expected to play a prominent role in the measurement of forward tagging jets in weak boson fusion channels. The HF calorimeter is based on steel absorber with embedded fused-silica-core optical fibers where Cherenkov radiation forms the basis of signal generation. Thus, the detector is essentially sensitive only to the electromagnetic shower core and is highly non-compensating (e/h \approx 5). This feature is also manifest in narrow and relatively short showers compared to similar calorimeters based on ionization. The choice of fused-silica optical fibers as active material is dictated by its exceptional radiation hardness. The electromagnetic energy resolution is dominated by photoelectron statistics and can be expressed in the customary form as a/\sqrt{E} + b. The stochastic term a is 198% and the constant term b is 9%. The hadronic energy resolution is largely determined by the fluctuations in the neutral pion production in showers, and when it is expressed as in the electromagnetic case, a = 280% and b = 11%

    Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters

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    Detailed measurements have been made with the CMS hadron calorimeter endcaps (HE) in response to beams of muons, electrons, and pions. Readout of HE with custom electronics and hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) shows no change of performance compared to readout with commercial electronics and photomultipliers. When combined with lead-tungstenate crystals, an energy resolution of 8\% is achieved with 300 GeV/c pions. A laser calibration system is used to set the timing and monitor operation of the complete electronics chain. Data taken with radioactive sources in comparison with test beam pions provides an absolute initial calibration of HE to approximately 4\% to 5\%

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function √į√į¬•with constraints√į √į √į¬• ¬• √įand√į¬ī√į¬• = √į. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis
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