9 research outputs found

    Salt stress vs. salt shock - the case of sugar beet and its halophytic ancestor

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    Abstract Background Sugar beet is a highly salt-tolerant crop. However, its ability to withstand high salinity is reduced compared to sea beet, a wild ancestor of all beet crops. The aim of this study was to investigate transcriptional patterns associated with physiological, cytological and biochemical mechanisms involved in salt response in these closely related subspecies. Salt acclimation strategies were assessed in plants subjected to either gradually increasing salt levels (salt-stress) or in excised leaves, exposed instantly to salinity (salt-shock). Result The majority of DEGs was down-regulated under stress, which may lead to certain aspects of metabolism being reduced in this treatment, as exemplified by lowered transpiration and photosynthesis. This effect was more pronounced in sugar beet. Additionally, sugar beet, but not sea beet, growth was restricted. Silencing of genes encoding numerous transcription factors and signaling proteins was observed, concomitantly with the up-regulation of lipid transfer protein-encoding genes and those coding for NRTs. Bark storage protein genes were up-regulated in sugar beet to the level observed in unstressed sea beet. Osmotic adjustment, manifested by increased water and proline content, occurred in salt-shocked leaves of both genotypes, due to the concerted activation of genes encoding aquaporins, ion channels and osmoprotectants synthesizing enzymes. bHLH137 was the only TF-encoding gene induced by salt in a dose-dependent manner irrespective of the mode of salt treatment. Moreover, the incidence of bHLH-binding motives in promoter regions of salinity-regulated genes was significantly greater than in non-regulated ones. Conclusions Maintaining homeostasis under salt stress requires deeper transcriptomic changes in the sugar beet than in the sea beet. In both genotypes salt shock elicits greater transcriptomic changes than stress and it results in greater number of up-regulated genes compared to the latter. NRTs and bark storage protein may play a yet undefined role in salt stress-acclimation in beet. bHLH is a putative regulator of salt response in beet leaves and a promising candidate for further studies

    4.4 Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

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    Climate change is already affecting terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity and is projected to become an even more important driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change in the future. Climate change will have a broad range of positive and negative impacts on biodiversity at genetic, species (e.g. plant and animal species) and ecosystem levels, including shifts in the distribution of species and ecosystems, changes in species abundance, changes in species phenology (i.e. timing of annual events) and an increased risk of extinctions for some species. This chapter describes the main projected impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests.JRC.D.1-Bio-econom