4,675 research outputs found

    Morphological classification of radio galaxies: Capsule Networks versus Convolutional Neural Networks

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    Next-generation radio surveys will yield an unprecedented amount of data, warranting analysis by use of machine learning techniques. Convolutional neural networks are the deep learning technique that has proven to be the most successful in classifying image data. Capsule networks are a more recently developed technique that use capsules comprised of groups of neurons, that describe properties of an image including the relative spatial locations of features. The current work explores the performance of different capsule network architectures against simpler convolutional neural network architectures, in reproducing the classifications into the classes of unresolved, FRI and FRII morphologies. We utilise images from a LOFAR survey which is the deepest, wide-area radio survey to date, revealing more complex radio-source structures compared to previous surveys, presenting further challenges for machine learning algorithms. The 4- and 8-layer convolutional networks attain an average precision of 93.3% and 94.3% respectively, compared to 89.7% obtained with the capsule network, when training on original and augmented images. Implementing transfer learning achieves a precision of 94.4%, that is within the confidence interval of the 8-layer convolutional network. The convolutional networks always outperform any variation of the capsule network, as they prove to be more robust to the presence of noise in images. The use of pooling appears to allow more freedom for the intra-class variability of radio galaxy morphologies, as well as reducing the impact of noise

    Calomplification ‚ÄĒ the power of generative calorimeter models

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    Motivated by the high computational costs of classical simulations, machine-learned generative models can be extremely useful in particle physics and elsewhere. They become especially attractive when surrogate models can efficiently learn the underlying distribution, such that a generated sample outperforms a training sample of limited size. This kind of GANplification has been observed for simple Gaussian models. We show the same effect for a physics simulation, specifically photon showers in an electromagnetic calorimeter

    The Machine Learning Landscape of Top Taggers

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    Based on the established task of identifying boosted, hadronically decaying top quarks, we compare a wide range of modern machine learning approaches. Unlike most established methods they rely on low-level input, for instance calorimeter output. While their network architectures are vastly different, their performance is comparatively similar. In general, we find that these new approaches are extremely powerful and great fun.Comment: Yet another tagger included

    Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

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    The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 900 GeV and 7 TeV collected during 2009 and 2010. Then, using the decay of K_s and Lambda particles, the calorimeter response to specific types of particles (positively and negatively charged pions, protons, and anti-protons) is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo predictions. Finally, the jet energy scale uncertainty is determined by propagating the response uncertainty for single charged and neutral particles to jets. The response uncertainty is 2-5% for central isolated hadrons and 1-3% for the final calorimeter jet energy scale.Comment: 24 pages plus author list (36 pages total), 23 figures, 1 table, submitted to European Physical Journal

    Measurement of Ōá c1 and Ōá c2 production with s‚ąö = 7 TeV pp collisions at ATLAS