19 research outputs found

    Genetic analysis of multiple synchronous lesions of the colon adenoma–carcinoma sequence

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    The colorectal adenoma–carcinoma sequence represents a well-known paradigm for the sequential development of cancer driven by the accumulation of genomic defects. Although the colorectal adenoma–carcinoma sequence is well investigated, studies about tumours of different dignity co-existent in the same patient are seldom. In order to address the distribution of genetic alterations in different lesions of the same patient, we coincidently investigated carcinomas, adenomas and aberrant crypt foci in patients with sporadic colon cancer. By utilizing polymerase chain reaction, single-strand conformation polymorphism, heteroduplex-analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, protein truncation test and sequencing techniques we looked for mutations and microsatellite instability of APC, H- ras, K- ras, p53, DCC and the DNA repair genes hMLH1/hMSH2. In accordance with the suggested adenoma–carcinoma sequence of the colon, four patients reflected the progressive accumulation of genetic defects in synchronously appearing tumours during carcinogenesis. However, two patients with non-hereditary malignomas presented different genetic instabilities in different but synchronously appearing tumours suggesting non-clonal growth under almost identical conditions of the environment. Thus, sporadically manifesting multiple lesions of the colon were not necessarily driven by similar genetic mechanisms. Premalignant lesions may transform into malignant tumours starting from different types of genetic instability, which indicates independent and simultaneous tumorigenesis within the same organ. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaig

    Preoperative short-term radiation therapy (25 Gy, 2.5 Gy twice daily) for primary resectable rectal cancer (phase II)

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    To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and long-term bowel function of preoperative hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in primary resectable rectal cancer. A total of 184 consecutive patients (median age 65 years, male : female=2 : 1) with clinical T3Nx rectal adenocarcinoma received preoperative pelvic radiation therapy with single fractions of 2.5 Gy twice daily (interval 6 h between fractions) to a total dose of 25 Gy within 1 week. Surgery was conducted the following week. Postoperative histology revealed UICC stage I in 33%, stage II in 26%, stage III in 34%, and stage IV in 7% of the patients. Median follow-up was 43 months (53 months for surviving patients). The actuarial 4-year-local-recurrence rate was 2.1%, overall recurrence 23%. Disease-specific and disease-free survivals at 4 years (excluding stage IV) were 82 and 69%, respectively. Overall survival for 4 years was 68%. Postoperative mortality was 0.5% (one patient), early anastomotic leakage occurred in 11.4%, and anastomotic stenosis requiring treatment in 6%, of 132 patients with primary anastomosis. Seven of 184 patients (3.8%) died of abdominal complications, all within the first year. Bowel function was satisfactory after more than 5 years. Local control in primarily resectable rectal cancer after 10 × 2.5 Gy is excellent, warranting further evaluation of this treatment

    Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices <abbrgrp><abbr bid="B1">1</abbr><abbr bid="B2">2</abbr></abbrgrp>.</p> <p>The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants.</p> <p>The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations.</p> <p>The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in population. Difference in risk perception for children/siblings as for the general population was significant between the first and second measurement time points. Anxiety about developing cancer again among affected participants continued to be high throughout this investigation.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The participant's accuracy in risk perception was poor, especially in low risk individuals before genetic counseling. There was a general trend towards more accurate estimation in all risk groups after genetic counseling. The importance of preventive programs was well understood. Cancer anxiety was prevalent and associated with risk perception, but decreased after genetic counseling.</p> <p><abbrgrp><abbr bid="B1">1</abbr></abbrgrp> National Society of Genetic Counselors (2005), Genetic Counseling as a Profession. Available at <url>http://www.nsgc.org/about/definition.cfm</url> (accessed November 25th 2007)</p> <p><abbrgrp><abbr bid="B2">2</abbr></abbrgrp> Julian-Reynier C., Welkenhuysen M-, Hagoel L., Decruyenaere M., Hopwood P. (2003) Risk communication strategies: state of the art and effectiveness in the context of cancer genetic services. Eur J of Human Genetics 11, 725736.</p

    Multiplex SNaPshot genotyping for detecting loss of heterozygosity in the mismatch-repair genes MLH1 and MSH2 in microsatellite-unstable tumors

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    BACKGROUND: In the workup of patients with suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) could help pinpoint the DNA in the mismatch-repair (MMR) gene carrying the germline mutation, but analysis of microsatellite markers has proved unreliable for this purpose. We developed a simple, low-cost method based on single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and capillary electrophoresis for the assessment of LOH at 2 MMR loci simultaneously. METHODS: We used the Applied Biosystems SNaPshot(R) Multiplex Kit with meticulously selected primers to assess 14 common SNPs in MLH1 [mutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2 (E. coli)] and MSH2 [mutS homolog 2, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 1 (E. coli)] and optimized the protocol for DNA isolated from peripheral blood and fresh/frozen or archival microsatellite-unstable tumors from patients with confirmed (n = 42) or suspected (n = 25) HNPCC. The 42 tumors from patients with confirmed MLH1 or MSH2 germline mutations were used to validate the method's diagnostic accuracy against results obtained with DNA sequencing or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. RESULTS: The SNaPshot assay provided better detection of certain SNPs than DNA sequencing. The MLH1 and MSH2 SNP marker sets were informative in 82% and 76% of the 67 cases analyzed, respectively. The new assay displayed 100% specificity for detecting LOH and predicted the location of the germline mutation in 40% of the cases (54% of those involving MLH1, 22% in MSH2). CONCLUSIONS: Our SNP-based method for detecting LOH in MLH1 and MSH2 is simple to perform with instruments available in most clinical genetics laboratories. It can be a valuable addition to protocols now used to guide mutational screening of patients with suspected HNPCC

    Microsatellite instability analysis: a multicenter study for reliability and quality control

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    The molecular biology section of the Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer study group-Germany, instituted a multicenter study to test the reliability and quality of microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis. Eight laboratories compared MSI analyses performed on 10 matched pairs of normal and tumor DNA from patients with colorectal carcinomas. A variety of techniques were applied to the detection of microsatellite changes: (a) silver and ethidium bromide staining of polyacrylamide gels; (b) radioactive labeling; and (c) automated fluorescence detection. The identification of highly unstable tumors and tumors without MSI was achieved in high concordance. However, the interpretation of the band patterns resulted in divergent classifications at several microsatellite marker loci for a large fraction of this tumor/normal panel. The data on more than 30 primers per case suggest that the enlargement of the microsatellite panel to more than 10 loci does not influence the results. In this study, cases with MSI in less than 10% of loci were classified as microsatellite stable, whereas MSI was diagnosed in cases with more than 40% of all markers unstable. We propose that a panel of five microsatellite loci consisting of repeats with different lengths should be analyzed in an initial analysis. When less than two marker loci display shifts in the microsatellite bands from tumor DNA, the panel should be enlarged to include an additional set of five marker loci. The number of marker loci analyzed as well as the number of unstable marker loci found should always be identified. These criteria should result in reports of MSI that are more comparable between studies