145 research outputs found

    Development of effective antimicrobial nanocomposites / nanomaterials

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    Microbial infections have a long history of causing serious illnesses for human and animals. The presence of harmful bacteria, especially on the surface of the objects and equipment in hospitals, causes many mortalities for ill patients and is a major global challenge. The inappropriate usage of antibiotics has lead to antimicrobial resistance development in bacteria. The global concern about antimicrobial resistance has triggered the development of new and more effective antimicrobial agents. A promising method is the use of novel nanomaterials against bacteria in a rapid way so that these bacteria may not be able to develop resistance. The nanoparticles (NPs) possess enhanced physicochemical properties compared with their bulk counterparts owing to a high surface to volume ratio. The metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) such as Ag, Cu and TiOâ‚‚ NPs have proven to be effective in killing bacteria through various mechanisms such as ion originating from the dissolution of NPs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from the photocatalytic process. This research project is focused on synthesizing of effective antimicrobial nanocomposites/nanomaterials with novel characteristics such as rapidness, multi-mode mechanisms and induction in the visible light range.Thesis (MPhil) -- University of Adelaide, School of Chemical Engineering, 201

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for biomedical applications

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    This thesis examines the need for new antibacterial materials to treat small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus bacteria and their parental strains. While ZnO-based nanoparticles (NPs) activated by ultraviolet (UV) and short wavelength visible light have been researched for their antibacterial properties, the potential benefits of incorporating UCNPs to allow activation by near-infrared (NIR) light have been overlooked. This study aims to fill this research gap by comprehensively investigating the synthesis and performance of ZnO-coated lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) composites activated by NIR light against S. aureus SCVs and parental strains. Furthermore, this research addresses the limited understanding of the potential risks associated with UV emission from UCNPs used as fluorescent probes in super-resolution microscopy (SRM). Despite extensive research on the usage of UCNPs as fluorescent probes for SRMs, the potential cytotoxic effects of UV emission from UCNPs have not been thoroughly studied. To advance cellular imaging techniques and ensure cellular viability, a comprehensive investigation of UV emission from UCNPs is necessary. This thesis aims to identify and quantify UV emission by UCNPs used in SRM and develop strategies to minimise UV emission and mitigate potential cytotoxic effects. These two main aims are addressed in three results chapters. The first aim, the focus of chapters 2 and 3, focuses on the synthesis UCNP@ZnO composites that can be activated by NIR light for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) applications against S. aureus SCVs and parental strains. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and performance of these composites, showing these materials to be effective antibacterial therapies against S. aureus SCVs, while chapter 3 improves upon the performance of these composites by careful tuning of the UCNP core and provides enhancements to the ZnO shell composition to improve reactive oxygen species generation and add a second mode of action in the form of silver nanoparticles. The second aim of this research is covered in chapter 4, which reports an investigation into the UV emission from UCNPs used as fluorescent probes in SRM. The work posits the need to understand the UV emission properties of these UCNPs as knowledge of these and the potential for cytotoxic effects are crucial for optimizing cellular imaging experiments and ensuring accurate and reliable results. Chapter 4 identifies design features and compositions that can limit UV emission, thereby minimizing the risk of phototoxicity and advancing the field of cellular imaging. Overall, the findings from this research have the potential to contribute to the development of safer and more effective targeted antibacterial therapies and enhance the understanding of UV emissions in cellular imaging techniques.Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Chemical Engineering, 202

    Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Nitric Oxide Modulate the Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Barley under Drought and Salinity

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    To evaluate the impacts of various concentrations of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg L-1) and sodium nitroprusside (0 and 100 ÎĽM as nitric oxide (NO) donor) on seed germination and early seedling growth of barley, two separate factorial experiments were conducted based on a randomized complete block design under polyethylene glycol-simulated drought stress and NaCl salinity stress conditions. Based on the results, a concentration-dependent declining trend was observed in barley germination indices upon seed exposure to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and NaCl suspensions. Employing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) particularly 1000 and 500 mg L-1 and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviated the adverse impacts of drought and salinity stresses. However, applied MWCNTs and SNP together were more efficient than suspension alone. The combined application of MWCNTs with SNP increased germination percentage, germination rate, root length, shoot length, vigor index and decreased mean germination time of barley. Similarly, the amount of moisture content and uniformity of seed germination were obviously increased by MWCNTs and SNP under drought and salinity. In contrast, MWCNTs at 2000 mg L-1 had an inhibitory impact on barley seed germination, while use of SNP moderated adverse effects of MWCNTs. Generally, it can be concluded that appropriate concentration of MWCNTs is beneficial in improving drought and NaCl salinity tolerance of barley by boosting seed water absorption and increasing the moisture content of seedlings

    Power Law Nanofluid through Tapered Artery based on a ‎Consistent Couple Stress Theory

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    Based on couple stress theory, this study investigated non-Newtonian power-law nanofluid flows in converging, non-tapered, and diverging arteries. In addition to excluding gravity effects artery, geometry included mild stenosis. The momentum equation is solved via the Galerkin method, and the results are compared with experimental and classical findings. Although the power-law couple stress theory’s relations are first used in the analysis of non-Newtonian blood flow, the results of this theory are far more consistent with experimental results than classical results. Comparison of the results of the study of blood flow velocity profiles in a non-tapered artery without stenosis by the mentioned theory with experimental and classical theory results shows the difference in velocity at the center of the artery between the experimental results and the results of the classical theory is 36%, while this value has been reduced to 14% for the results of the couple stress theory. The variations in velocity profile with the power-law index (n=0.8 and n=0.85) and the dimensionless Darcy number (Da=10-10 and Da=10-7) in all three geometries indicated a flat velocity distribution with the increase in the power-law index while increasing the velocity profile with increased Darcy number. Mass transfer and energy equations are solved using the extended Kantorovich method. The solution convergence is evaluated, and the influence of parameters such as Prandtl number, Schmidt number, and dimensionless thermospheric and Brownian parameters on concentration and temperature profiles is obtained

    Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017

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    Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2—to end preventable child deaths by 2030—we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000–2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations

    Mapping local patterns of childhood overweight and wasting in low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017

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    A double burden of malnutrition occurs when individuals, household members or communities experience both undernutrition and overweight. Here, we show geospatial estimates of overweight and wasting prevalence among children under 5 years of age in 105 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2017 and aggregate these to policy-relevant administrative units. Wasting decreased overall across LMICs between 2000 and 2017, from 8.4% (62.3 (55.1–70.8) million) to 6.4% (58.3 (47.6–70.7) million), but is predicted to remain above the World Health Organization’s Global Nutrition Target of <5% in over half of LMICs by 2025. Prevalence of overweight increased from 5.2% (30 (22.8–38.5) million) in 2000 to 6.0% (55.5 (44.8–67.9) million) children aged under 5 years in 2017. Areas most affected by double burden of malnutrition were located in Indonesia, Thailand, southeastern China, Botswana, Cameroon and central Nigeria. Our estimates provide a new perspective to researchers, policy makers and public health agencies in their efforts to address this global childhood syndemic

    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) includes a comprehensive assessment of incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 354 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Previous GBD studies have shown how the decline of mortality rates from 1990 to 2016 has led to an increase in life expectancy, an ageing global population, and an expansion of the non-fatal burden of disease and injury. These studies have also shown how a substantial portion of the world's population experiences non-fatal health loss with considerable heterogeneity among different causes, locations, ages, and sexes. Ongoing objectives of the GBD study include increasing the level of estimation detail, improving analytical strategies, and increasing the amount of high-quality data. Methods: We estimated incidence and prevalence for 354 diseases and injuries and 3484 sequelae. We used an updated and extensive body of literature studies, survey data, surveillance data, inpatient admission records, outpatient visit records, and health insurance claims, and additionally used results from cause of death models to inform estimates using a total of 68 781 data sources. Newly available clinical data from India, Iran, Japan, Jordan, Nepal, China, Brazil, Norway, and Italy were incorporated, as well as updated claims data from the USA and new claims data from Taiwan (province of China) and Singapore. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between rates of incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death for each condition. YLDs were estimated as the product of a prevalence estimate and a disability weight for health states of each mutually exclusive sequela, adjusted for comorbidity. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary development indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Additionally, we calculated differences between male and female YLDs to identify divergent trends across sexes. GBD 2017 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting. Findings: Globally, for females, the causes with the greatest age-standardised prevalence were oral disorders, headache disorders, and haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias in both 1990 and 2017. For males, the causes with the greatest age-standardised prevalence were oral disorders, headache disorders, and tuberculosis including latent tuberculosis infection in both 1990 and 2017. In terms of YLDs, low back pain, headache disorders, and dietary iron deficiency were the leading Level 3 causes of YLD counts in 1990, whereas low back pain, headache disorders, and depressive disorders were the leading causes in 2017 for both sexes combined. All-cause age-standardised YLD rates decreased by 3·9% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·1–4·6) from 1990 to 2017; however, the all-age YLD rate increased by 7·2% (6·0–8·4) while the total sum of global YLDs increased from 562 million (421–723) to 853 million (642–1100). The increases for males and females were similar, with increases in all-age YLD rates of 7·9% (6·6–9·2) for males and 6·5% (5·4–7·7) for females. We found significant differences between males and females in terms of age-standardised prevalence estimates for multiple causes. The causes with the greatest relative differences between sexes in 2017 included substance use disorders (3018 cases [95% UI 2782–3252] per 100 000 in males vs s1400 [1279–1524] per 100 000 in females), transport injuries (3322 [3082–3583] vs 2336 [2154–2535]), and self-harm and interpersonal violence (3265 [2943–3630] vs 5643 [5057–6302]). Interpretation: Global all-cause age-standardised YLD rates have improved only slightly over a period spanning nearly three decades. However, the magnitude of the non-fatal disease burden has expanded globally, with increasing numbers of people who have a wide spectrum of conditions. A subset of conditions has remained globally pervasive since 1990, whereas other conditions have displayed more dynamic trends, with different ages, sexes, and geographies across the globe experiencing varying burdens and trends of health loss. This study emphasises how global improvements in premature mortality for select conditions have led to older populations with complex and potentially expensive diseases, yet also highlights global achievements in certain domains of disease and injury. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017 : results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Correction:Background Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries. Methods We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Findings In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505). Interpretation Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.Peer reviewe

    Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019