196 research outputs found

    Identification of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium spp. on Onion Plant (Allium cepa L.) Growing in Hatay, Amasya and Tokat Provinces Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

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    Plant fungal disease pathogens cause significant yield and quality losses in onion growing areas. In addition to yield losses, they cause negative effects that reduce the quality and export potential of the product, resulting in significant economic losses during harvest, post-harvest, processing and marketing stages. In recent years, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a rapid, cost-effective, reproducible, and powerful technique for identifying microorganisms, and its impact on microbiological diagnosis has transformed workflow in equipped laboratories. In this study, proteomic analyzes were performed on Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium species isolated from onion growing areas in Hatay, Amasya, and Tokat provinces. After extraction of mycelium from single spore cultures of the isolates with ethanol-formic acid, the spectra of the individual fungal isolates were determined using the Flex control software program. These spectra were compared with Maldi Biotyper Real-Time Classification (RTC) and identification was performed. Of 519 different fungal isolates, 435 representative fungal isolates (83.8%)  were identified by MALDI TOF MS. Eighty-four fungal isolates could not be identified because they were not in a satisfactory range of purity and identification. Of the 435 isolates, 269 (61.8%) were identified as Fusarium spp., 80 isolates (18.4%) were identified as Alternaria spp., 60 isolates (13.8%) as Aspergillus spp., and 26 isolates (6.0%) as Penicillium spp. Among the fungal isolates, 72.5% of the Fusarium isolates, 78.8% of the Alternaria isolates, 90.0% of the Aspergillus isolates and 84.6% of the Penicillium isolates were identified as “highly probable” species with score values between 2.000-3.000 (green color). These species are Alternaria alternata, Alternaria infectoria, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium verticillioides, Penicillium commune and Penicillium glabrum. The results clearly demonstrate that MALDI TOF MS biotyping may be used as a highly reliable and economical diagnostic method for routine diagnosis of diseases caused by Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium species

    CHARACTERIZATION OF CYLINDROCARPON-LIKE ANAMORPHS CAUSING ROOT AND BASAL ROT OF APRICOT AND IN VITRO ACTIVITIES OF SOME FUNGICIDES

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    Four apricot nurseries were surveyed in Hatay province in Turkey to evaluate the phytosanitary status of the nursery plant material. Endophytic and potential pathogenic fungi were identified in plants and 12 Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph isolates were detected in the root system and basal stems of analyzed rootstocks. Based on partial sequencing ITS, three different  Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph species were identified as Dactylonectria torresensis (6 isolates), Dactylonectria novozelandica (3 isolates) and Neonectria candida (3 isolates). Pathogenicity tests were conducted under greenhouse conditions which showed that all three Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph species, were identified as pathogens. ADt12 (D. torresensis) isolate, obtained from the survey area, have been tested in vitro for its sensitivity to several fungicides (thiophanate-methyl (70%), fluazinam (500g/L), fludioxonil (230g/L), and boscalid (26.7%)+pyraclostrobin (6.7%)). It was determined that ADt12 isolate was highly sensitive to fludioxonil and fluazinam, and sensitive to thiophanate-methyl and boscalid+pyraclostrobin as a result of probit analysis of EC50 values

    Determination of the Antifungal Effect of Boron, Sodium and Potassium Salts against Pomegranate Fruit and Crown Rot Disease Agent Coniella granati

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    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the most important fruit species grown in Turkey. Fungal pathogens cause significant losses in quality and yield of pomegranate fruit in orchards and warehouses. Pomegranate fruit and crown rot, caused by Coniella granati, is one of the most serious diseases of pomegranate. No fungicides have been registered in Turkey to control this disease. In this study, the antifungal effect of etidote-67, borax, boric acid, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite, sodium carbonate and potassium sorbate on mycelial growth of C. granati was investigated in vitro. The antifungal effect of the salts on mycelial growth of the fungus was determined at concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06 and 0.07 (w%252Fv). Increased concentrations of etidote-67, borax, boric acid, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite, sodium carbonate, and potassium sorbate significantly inhibited mycelial growth of the fungus compared to the control. Significant differences were found between the efficacy of the treatments (Plt%253B0.05). The concentrations of 0.04%25 and 0.03%25 of etidot-67 and borax salts, respectively, were determined to be the doses that completely inhibited mycelial growth of the fungus. Boric acid, sodium nitrite, sodium carbonate and potassium sorbate completely inhibited the fungal mycelial growth at a concentration of 0.05%25, while sodium benzoate inhibited fungal mycelial growth at a relatively high concentration (0.07%25). When comparing the effective concentrations (EC50) of the salts inhibiting mycelial growth by 50%25, sodium benzoate showed a stronger inhibitory effect against the fungus. In conclusion, the results of this study show that boron, sodium, and potassium salts can be used as an alternative to synthetic fungicides to control fruit and crown rot disease caused by C. granati in pomegranate

    Determination of in vitro Biocontrol Potentials of Antagonist Bacterial Isolates Against Onion Basal and Root Rot Disease Agent Fusarium proliferatu

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    Various Fusarium species cause significant yield and quality losses in onion (Allium cepa L.) plants. Onion basal and root rot, caused by Fusarium proliferatum, is an emerging postharvest disease that causes severe economic losses. Although the disease has long been recognized as a major constraint to the production of Allium spp., there is insufficient information to support disease management. In recent years, a need has arisen for environmentally friendly, innovative alternative methods to avoid the use of chemical pesticides in the control of diseases that are a problem in agriculture. In this study, the biocontrol efficiency of antagonistic bacterial isolates obtained from bulbs, roots and leaves of healthy onion plants was investigated against F. proliferatum in vitro. The antagonistic activity of the bacterial isolates in inhibiting the mycelial growth of the fungal agent was determined by the dual culture assay. The bacterial isolates were identified by morphological, biochemical and proteomic (MALDI-TOF MS) methods. A total of 18 putative bacterial isolates were obtained from the bulbs, roots and leaves of healthy onion plants on selective media. As a result of in vitro dual culture assays, only six bacterial isolates (Bacillus cereus MK2, Enterobacter xiangfangensis MK3, Bacillus thuringiensis MK8, Alcaligenes faecalis MK9, Pseudomonas putida MK16 and Citrobacter freundii MK17) significantly suppressed mycelial growth of disease agent (43.89-50.56%25 inhibition). Bacillus cereus MK2 was found to be the most effective bacterial isolate with a 50.56%25 inhibition rate of mycelial growth. Overall, the results suggest that Bacillus cereus MK2 could be used as a potential biocontrol agent for a sustainable and environmentally friendly control strategy for onion fields affected by Fusarium basal and root rot disease. It is necessary to conduct further studies on the effects of the effective bacterial isolates against the pathogen in vivo and their mechanisms of action

    Determination of Presence and Incidence of Weed Seeds in Wheat Before and After Selector Treatment in Wheat in Thrace Region of Turkey

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    DergiPark: 245918trakyafbdBu çalışma buğday ürününe karışan yabancı ot tohum sayılarını, bulunma yüzdelerini ve yaygınlıklarını selektörden önce ve sonra tespit etmek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışmada buğday ürününden selektörden önce ve sonra olmak üzere Tekirdağ’ dan 37, Edirne’ den 44, Kırklareli’nden 28 örnek alınmıştır. Selektörden önce alınan örneklerde Tekirdağ ilinde 24, Edirne ilinde 32, Kırklareli ilinde 30 yabancı ot türü tespit edilmiştir. Selektörden sonra ise Tekirdağ’ da 15, Edirne’ de 22 ve Kırklareli’ nde 25 yabancı ot türü belirlenmiştir. Buna göre Trakya bölgesinde selektörden önce alınan örneklerde toplam 32 selektörden sonra alınan örneklerde toplam 25 adet yabancı ot türü saptanmıştır. Trakya Bölgesinde alınan buğday örnekleri içerisinde Avena spp., Lolium spp., Bromus spp., Convolvulus arvensis, Hordeum spp., Galium spp., Myagrum perfoliatum, Vicia spp., Rapistrum rugosum ve Consolida spp.en fazla yaygınlık gösteren türlerdirThis study was carried out to determine numbers, presence and incidence of weed seeds in wheat samples collected before and after selector treatments. In this study, 37 samples from Tekirdağ, 44 samples from Edirne and 28 samples from Kırklareli provinces have been evaluated before and after selector treatments. Samples evaluated before selector treatment contained 24 weed species in Tekirdağ, 32 weed species in Edirne, 30 weed species Kırklareli provinces. Totally 15 weed species in Tekirdağ, 22 weed species in Edirne, 25 weed species in Kırklareli provinces were determined in samples collected after selector treatment. 32 and 25 weed species were determined in samples collected before and after selector treatment, respectively. Avena spp., Lolium spp., Bromus spp., Convolvulus arvensis, Hordeum spp., Galium spp., Myagrum perfoliatum, Vicia spp., Rapistrum rugosum and Consolida spp. were found the most common weed species in collected wheat seed samples in the Trakya Region of Turke

    Application of magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy for diagnosis of early gastric cancer and precancerous lesion

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Gastric carcinoma is the second commonest cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Early detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer in the stomach is important for improving the prognosis of gastric cancer. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the value of magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI) in the diagnosis of precancerous lesions and early gastric cancer.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>This study included 122 patients who were diagnosed with early gastric cancer or precancerous gastric lesions by endoscopy. The patients underwent an examination with conventional endoscopy, magnifying NBI, and magnifying chromoendoscopy. Images resolution was evaluated, and the morphology, pit patterns and blood capillary forms of lesions were analyzed. The presence of gastric carcinoma and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia in the biopsy samples was considered as a positive pathological result, which is used to assess accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>For image resolution, magnifying NBI and magnifying chromoendoscopy were significantly superior to magnifying conventional endoscopy in morphology, pit pattern and blood capillary form (P < 0.01), and magnifying NBI was significantly superior to magnifying chromoendoscopy in blood capillary form (P < 0.01). IV, V<sub>1</sub>, and VI type of gastric pit pattern were detected in 14 cases, 43 cases, and 17 cases in patients with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. V<sub>1 </sub>and VI type of gastric pit pattern were detected in 9 cases and 39 cases in patients with early gastric cancer, respectively. The presence of irregular minute vessels and variation in the caliber of vessels was found in 109 cases. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate and false negative rate for diagnosis of early gastric cancer and precancerous gastric lesions were 68.9%, 95.1%, 63.1%, 24.5%, and 32.4% for conventional endoscopy, 93.6%, 92.7%, 94.5%, 5.7%, and 6.9% for magnifying NBI, and 91.3%, 88.6%, 93.2%, 13.2%, and 21.48% for magnifying chromoendoscopy, respectively.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This study demonstrates that magnifying NBI is superior to conventional endoscopy in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer and precancerous gastric lesions, and can be used for screening early malignancies of the stomach.</p

    AMPA receptor GluA2 subunit defects are a cause of neurodevelopmental disorders.

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    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission

    Search for new physics with dijet angular distributions in proton-proton collisions at root S = 13 TeV

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