788 research outputs found

    Surface scattering mechanisms of tantalum nitride thin film resistor

    Get PDF
    In this letter, we utilize an electrical analysis method to develop a TaN thin film resistor with a stricter spec and near-zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for car-used electronic applications. Simultaneously, we also propose a physical mechanism mode to explain the origin of near-zero TCR for the TaN thin film resistor (TFR). Through current fitting, the carrier conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to surface scattering and finally to ohmic conduction for different TaN TFRs with different TaN microstructures. Experimental data of current–voltage measurement under successive increasing temperature confirm the conduction mechanism transition. A model of TaN grain boundary isolation ability is eventually proposed to influence the carrier transport in the TaN thin film resistor, which causes different current conduction mechanisms

    Sleep Quality among Breast and Prostate Cancer Patients: A Comparison between Subjective and Objective Measurements

    Get PDF
    Breast and prostate cancer patients may experience physical and psychological distress, and a possible decrease in sleep quality. Subjective and objective methods measure different aspects of sleep quality. Our study attempted to determine differences between objective and subjective measurements of sleep quality using bivariate and Pearson’s correlation data analysis. Forty breast (n = 20) and prostate (n = 20) cancer patients were recruited in this observational study. Participants were given an actigraphy device (ACT) and asked to continuously wear it for seven consecutive days, for objective data collection. Following this period, they filled out the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI) to collect subjective data on sleep quality. The correlation results showed that, for breast cancer patients, PSQI sleep duration was moderately correlated with ACT total sleeping time (TST) (r = −0.534, p < 0.05), and PSQI daytime dysfunction was related to ACT efficiency (r = 0.521, p < 0.05). For prostate cancer patients, PSQI sleep disturbances were related to ACT TST (r = 0.626, p < 0.05). Both objective and subjective measurements are important in validating and determining details of sleep quality, with combined results being more insightful, and can also help in personalized care to further improve quality of life among cancer patients.Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (grant numbers 108-2221-E-038-013 and 110-2923-E-038-001-MY3)Taipei Medical University, Taiwan (grant number 108-3805-009-110)Ministry of Education, Taiwan (grant number 108-6604-002-400)Wanfang hospital, Taiwan (grant number 106TMU-WFH-01-4

    The Impact of Matching Vaccine Strains and Post-SARS Public Health Efforts on Reducing Influenza-Associated Mortality among the Elderly

    Get PDF
    Public health administrators do not have effective models to predict excess influenza-associated mortality and monitor viral changes associated with it. This study evaluated the effect of matching/mismatching vaccine strains, type/subtype pattern changes in Taiwan's influenza viruses, and the impact of post-SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) public health efforts on excess influenza-associated mortalities among the elderly. A negative binomial model was developed to estimate Taiwan's monthly influenza-associated mortality among the elderly. We calculated three winter and annual excess influenza-associated mortalities [pneumonia and influenza (P&I), respiratory and circulatory, and all-cause] from the 1999–2000 through the 2006–2007 influenza seasons. Obtaining influenza virus sequences from the months/years in which death from P&I was excessive, we investigated molecular variation in vaccine-mismatched influenza viruses by comparing hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) of the circulating and vaccine strains. We found that the higher the isolation rate of A (H3N2) and vaccine-mismatched influenza viruses, the greater the monthly P&I mortality. However, this significant positive association became negative for higher matching of A (H3N2) and public health efforts with post-SARS effect. Mean excess P&I mortality for winters was significantly higher before 2003 than after that year [mean ± S.D.: 1.44±1.35 vs. 0.35±1.13, p = 0.04]. Further analysis revealed that vaccine-matched circulating influenza A viruses were significantly associated with lower excess P&I mortality during post-SARS winters (i.e., 2005–2007) than during pre-SARS winters [0.03±0.06 vs. 1.57±1.27, p = 0.01]. Stratification of these vaccine-matching and post-SARS effect showed substantial trends toward lower elderly excess P&I mortalities in winters with either mismatching vaccines during the post-SARS period or matching vaccines during the pre-SARS period. Importantly, all three excess mortalities were at their highest in May, 2003, when inter-hospital nosocomial infections were peaking. Furthermore, vaccine-mismatched H3N2 viruses circulating in the years with high excess P&I mortality exhibited both a lower amino acid identity percentage of HA1 between vaccine and circulating strains and a higher numbers of variations at epitope B. Our model can help future decision makers to estimate excess P&I mortality effectively, select and test virus strains for antigenic variation, and evaluate public health strategy effectiveness

    Efficiency of Finding Muon Track Trigger Primitives in CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

    Get PDF
    In the CMS Experiment, muon detection in the forward direction is accomplished by cathode strip chambers~(CSC). These detectors identify muons, provide a fast muon trigger, and give a precise measurement of the muon trajectory. There are 468 six-plane CSCs in the system. The efficiency of finding muon trigger primitives (muon track segments) was studied using~36 CMS CSCs and cosmic ray muons during the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge~(MTCC) exercise conducted by the~CMS experiment in~2006. In contrast to earlier studies that used muon beams to illuminate a very small chamber area (< ⁣0.01< \! 0.01~m2^2), results presented in this paper were obtained by many installed CSCs operating {\em in situ} over an area of ≈ ⁣23\approx \! 23~m2^2 as a part of the~CMS experiment. The efficiency of finding 2-dimensional trigger primitives within 6-layer chambers was found to be~99.93±0.03%99.93 \pm 0.03\%. These segments, found by the CSC electronics within 800800~ns after the passing of a muon through the chambers, are the input information for the Level-1 muon trigger and, also, are a necessary condition for chambers to be read out by the Data Acquisition System

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV

    Get PDF
    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript −1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation