2,439 research outputs found

    Molasses growth medium for production of Rhizobium sp. based biofertilizer

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    Rhizobium forms symbiotic relationship with leguminous crops and is recommended for use in various legumes. Rhizobium sp. fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available to legumes through formation of root nodules. Rhizobium biofertilizer production is carried out mostly by using semi-synthetic microbiological medium which forms major expense of this activity. Successful commercial production of biofertilizer can be enhanced by use of natural substrates, as molasses, cheese whey, corn steep liquor, for bacterial biomass production. The present work centers around the use of sugarcane molasses as a source of fermentable sugars. It was supplemented with various organic/inorganic nitrogen sources, chemical compounds to increase biomass yield and to increase the shelf life of the product thus prepared. Compliance to Fertilizer Control Order specifications was demonstrated in wet lab analysis

    Molasses growth medium for production of Rhizobium sp. based biofertilizer

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    378-383Rhizobium forms symbiotic relationship with leguminous crops and is recommended for use in various legumes. Rhizobium sp. fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available to legumes through formation of root nodules. Rhizobium biofertilizer production is carried out mostly by using semi-synthetic microbiological medium which forms major expense of this activity. Successful commercial production of biofertilizer can be enhanced by use of natural substrates, as molasses, cheese whey, corn steep liquor, for bacterial biomass production. The present work centers around the use of sugarcane molasses as a source of fermentable sugars. It was supplemented with various organic/inorganic nitrogen sources, chemical compounds to increase biomass yield and to increase the shelf life of the product thus prepared. Compliance to Fertilizer Control Order specifications was demonstrated in wet lab analysis

    The Formation and Runoff of Condensate on a Vertical Glass Surface

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    © 2014 ASHRAE (www.ashrae.org). Published in ASHRAE Transactions, Volume 120, Part 1. For personal use only. Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's prior written permission.An experimental study of condensate formation and runoff was performed by exposing a sheet of glass, cooled at its bottom edge, to an enclosure with a controlled environment. This arrangement mimics the indoor glass surface at the bottom edge of a window when the window is exposed to a cold, outdoor environment. The air in the enclosure was maintained at a constant dry-bulb temperature (Tdb = 22.1°C [Tdb = 71.8°F]) and constant relative humidity (RH = 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, or 50%) during individual experiments. It was found that the time until initial runoff, tir, decreased with increasing RH, and tir was sensitive to RH at low RH, but insen-sitive to RH at high RH. At first, condensate runoff occurred near the bottom of the glass and left one to believe that the remaining condensate was at steady state. But over a 16-hour period, it was found that the condensate runoff front, in every case, progressed upward to include the entire condensate area. The speed of the condensate runoff front increased with RH, and was less sensitive to RH at low RH. Measurement results were used to produce a summary plot showing runoff front position as a function of glass surface temperature and RH. This chart can be used to predict tir and runoff front progression at the bottom edge of any window if the surface temperature profile is known.Canadian Window & Door Manufacturers Associatio

    To study the outcome of previous one cesarean pregnancies in a rural tertiary center of Haryana, India

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    Background: Rising rates of caesarean section is a matter of great concern and TOLAC is an attractive alternative. Analysing outcome of previous one caesarean pregnancies will provide an insight for reducing the caesarean rates and formulating protocols and policies for TOLAC.Methods: A retrospective study of patients of previous one caesarean pregnancy was done from February 2015 to January 2016 and 3 groups were made, ERCS group, failed TOLAC group and successful TOLAC group. The rates of elective repeat caesarean, failed TOLAC, successful TOLAC, maternal complications, neonatal morbidity and mortality in all three groups were studied.Results: There were 5177 total deliveries with 488 (9.43%) previous one caesarean pregnancies. Out of 488 patients 161 (33%) underwent elective repeat caesarean and 327 (67%) underwent trial of labour. Out of 327 patients 234 (71.56%) had a successful TOLAC and 93 (28.44%) had failed TOLAC. Breech (23%) followed by foetal distress (20%) were the most common indications of previous caesarean. Commonest indication of elective repeat caesarean was short interval (33%) and that of failed TOLAC was foetal distress (38.7%) followed by failed induction (23.6%). There were 4 morbidly adherent placentas (0.82%), 1 scar rupture, 3 scar dehiscence, no maternal mortality and 10 neonatal deaths.Conclusions: Previous one caesarean section is not only a risk factor for repeat caesareans and complications like morbidly adherent placenta, uterine rupture but also a financial burden on health facilities. Encouraging the patients for trial of labour and emphasizing the usage of contraception is the need of the hour

    Budget impact of adding ivabradine to standard of care in patients with chronic systolic heart failure in the United States

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    BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) costs 21billionannuallyindirecthealthcarecosts,80OBJECTIVE:ToestimatethebudgetimpactofivabradinefromaU.S.commercialpayerperspective.METHODS:Abudgetimpactmodelestimatedthepermemberpermonth(PMPM)impactofintroducingivabradinetoexistingformulariesbycomparingareferencescenario(SoC)andanewdrugscenario(ivabradine+SoC)inhypothetical1millionmembercommercialandMedicareAdvantageplans.Inbothscenarios,U.S.claimsdatawereusedforthereferencecumulativeannualratesofhospitalizations(HF,nonHFcardiovascular[CV],andnonCV),andhospitalizationrateswereadjustedusingSHIFTdata.ThemodelcontrolledformortalityriskusingSHIFTandU.S.lifetabledata,andhospitalizationcostswereobtainedfromU.S.claimsdata:HFrelated=21 billion annually in direct health care costs, 80% of which is directly attributable to hospitalizations. The SHIFT clinical study demonstrated that ivabradine plus standard of care (SoC) reduced HF-related and all-cause hospitalizations compared with SoC alone. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the budget impact of ivabradine from a U.S. commercial payer perspective. METHODS: A budget impact model estimated the per-member-per month (PMPM) impact of introducing ivabradine to existing formularies by comparing a reference scenario (SoC) and a new drug scenario (ivabradine + SoC) in hypothetical 1 million-member commercial and Medicare Advantage plans. In both scenarios, U.S. claims data were used for the reference cumulative annual rates of hospitalizations (HF, non-HF cardiovascular [CV], and non-CV), and hospitalization rates were adjusted using SHIFT data. The model controlled for mortality risk using SHIFT and U.S. life table data, and hospitalization costs were obtained from U.S. claims data: HF-related = 37,507; non-HF CV = 28,951;andnonCV=28,951; and non-CV = 17,904. The annualized wholesale acquisition cost of ivabradine was 4,500,withbaselineuseforthisnewdrugat2RESULTS:BasedontheapprovedU.S.indication,approximately2,000commerciallyinsuredpatientsfroma1millionmembercommercialplanwereeligibletoreceiveivabradine.IvabradineresultedinaPMPMcostsavingsof4,500, with baseline use for this new drug at 2%, increasing 2% per year. RESULTS: Based on the approved U.S. indication, approximately 2,000 commercially insured patients from a 1 million-member commercial plan were eligible to receive ivabradine. Ivabradine resulted in a PMPM cost savings of 0.01 and 0.04inyears1and3ofthecoremodel,respectively.Afterincludingtheacquisitionpriceforivabradine,themodelshowedadecreaseintotalcostsinthecommercial(0.04 in years 1 and 3 of the core model, respectively. After including the acquisition price for ivabradine, the model showed a decrease in total costs in the commercial (991,256 and 474,499,respectively)andMedicarepopulations(474,499, respectively) and Medicare populations (13,849,262 and 4,280,291,respectively)inyear1.Thisdecreasewasdrivenbyivabradinesreductioninhospitalizationrates.Forthecoremodel,theestimatedpharmacyonlyPMPMinyear1was4,280,291, respectively) in year 1. This decrease was driven by ivabradine’s reduction in hospitalization rates. For the core model, the estimated pharmacy-only PMPM in year 1 was 0.01 for the commercial population and $0.24 for the Medicare Advantage population. CONCLUSIONS: Adding ivabradine to SoC led to lower average annual treatment costs. The negative PMPM budget impact indicates that ivabradine is an affordable option for U.S. payers

    To compare intrapartum cardiotocographic (CTG) recording with conventional intermittent fetal heart auscultation during labor

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    Standard evaluation of fetal well-being during labor includes the periodic assessment of the fetal heart rate (FHR), its pattern and response to intrapartum stimuli and events. Effective methods of evaluation and meaningful interpretation of FHR data range from non-invasive techniques like Intermittent Auscultation, continuous electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring to invasive techniques of fetal blood gas analysis and fetal ECG

    Globally and Locally Minimal Weight Spanning Tree Networks

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    The competition between local and global driving forces is significant in a wide variety of naturally occurring branched networks. We have investigated the impact of a global minimization criterion versus a local one on the structure of spanning trees. To do so, we consider two spanning tree structures - the generalized minimal spanning tree (GMST) defined by Dror et al. [1] and an analogous structure based on the invasion percolation network, which we term the generalized invasive spanning tree or GIST. In general, these two structures represent extremes of global and local optimality, respectively. Structural characteristics are compared between the GMST and GIST for a fixed lattice. In addition, we demonstrate a method for creating a series of structures which enable one to span the range between these two extremes. Two structural characterizations, the occupied edge density (i.e., the fraction of edges in the graph that are included in the tree) and the tortuosity of the arcs in the trees, are shown to correlate well with the degree to which an intermediate structure resembles the GMST or GIST. Both characterizations are straightforward to determine from an image and are potentially useful tools in the analysis of the formation of network structures.Comment: 23 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables, typographical error correcte

    Challenges and opportunities associated with waste management in India

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    India faces major environmental challenges associated with waste generation and inadequate waste collection, transport, treatment and disposal. Current systems in India cannot cope with the volumes of waste generated by an increasing urban population, and this impacts on the environment and public health. The challenges and barriers are significant, but so are the opportunities. This paper reports on an international seminar on ‘Sustainable solid waste management for cities: opportunities in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries’ organized by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute and the Royal Society. A priority is to move from reliance on waste dumps that offer no environmental protection, to waste management systems that retain useful resources within the economy. Waste segregation at source and use of specialized waste processing facilities to separate recyclable materials has a key role. Disposal of residual waste after extraction of material resources needs engineered landfill sites and/or investment in waste-to-energy facilities. The potential for energy generation from landfill via methane extraction or thermal treatment is a major opportunity, but a key barrier is the shortage of qualified engineers and environmental professionals with the experience to deliver improved waste management systems in India

    Priming third-party social exclusion does not elicit children's inclusion of out-group members

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    This study investigates how culture and priming 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 186) with third-party social exclusion affects their subsequent inclusion of out-group members. Children in societies that tend to value social independence (Germany, New Zealand) and interdependence (Northern Cyprus) were randomly assigned to minimal groups. Next, they watched video stimuli depicting third-party social exclusion (exclusion condition) or neutral content (control condition). We assessed children's recognition of the social exclusion expressed in the priming videos and their understanding of the emotional consequences thereof. We furthermore assessed children's inclusion behaviour in a ball-tossing game in which participants could include an out-group agent into an in-group interplay. Children across societies detected third-party social exclusion and ascribed lower mood to excluded than non-excluded protagonists. Children from Germany and New Zealand were more likely to include the out-group agent into the in-group interaction than children from Northern Cyprus. Children's social inclusion remained unaffected by their exposure to third-party social exclusion primes. These results suggest that children from diverse societies recognize social exclusion and correctly forecast its negative emotional consequences, but raise doubt on the notion that social exclusion exposure affects subsequent social inclusion

    Cost-effectiveness of dabigatran etexilate for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in UK patients with atrial fibrillation

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    Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of dabigatran etexilate, a new oral anticoagulant, versus warfarin and other alternatives for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in UK patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods A Markov model estimated the cost-effectiveness of dabigatran etexilate versus warfarin, aspirin or no therapy. Two patient cohorts with AF (starting age of <80 and ≥80 years) were considered separately, in line with the UK labelled indication. Modelled outcomes over a lifetime horizon included clinical events, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), total costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results Patients treated with dabigatran etexilate experienced fewer ischaemic strokes (3.74 dabigatran etexilate vs 3.97 warfarin) and fewer combined intracranial haemorrhages and haemorrhagic strokes (0.43 dabigatran etexilate vs 0.99 warfarin) per 100 patient-years. Larger differences were observed comparing dabigatran etexilate with aspirin or no therapy. For patients initiating treatment at ages <80 and ≥80 years, the ICERs for dabigatran etexilate were £4831 and £7090/QALY gained versus warfarin with a probability of cost-effectiveness at £20 000/QALY gained of 98% and 63%, respectively. For the patient cohort starting treatment at ages <80 years, the ICER versus aspirin was £3457/QALY gained and dabigatran etexilate was dominant (ie, was less costly and more effective) compared with no therapy. These results were robust in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions This economic evaluation suggests that the use of dabigatran etexilate as a first-line treatment for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism is likely to be cost-effective in eligible UK patients with AF
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