2,306 research outputs found

    Mechanochemical synthesis of a new triptycene-based imine-linked covalent organic polymer for degradation of organic dye

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    In the present work, a novel triptycene-based imine-linked covalent organic polymer (TP-COP) was designed and synthesized via room-temperature, solvent-free mechanochemical grinding. The as-synthesized TP-COP material was fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid-state NMR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The HRTEM image of TP-COP clearly indicates the presence of graphene-like layered morphology (exfoliated layers). The DRS study reveals that TP-COP exhibited a low optical band gap value of 2.49 eV, implying its semiconducting nature. Further, the EPR study confirmed the semiconducting behavior of TP-COP through the generation of free radicals. These findings suggest that TP-COP could be used as an efficient photocatayst for the degradation of organic dye (RhB) under solar irradiation. Moreover, TP-COP showed excellent reusability in degrading dye (RhB) without obvious performance decay

    Monitoring energy hotspots in software

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    International audienceGreen IT has emerged as a discipline concerned with the optimiza- tion of software solutions with regards to their energy consumption. In this domain, most of the state-of-the-art solutions concentrate on coarse-grained approaches to monitor the energy consumption of a device or a process. In this paper, we report on a fine-grained runtime energy monitoring framework we developed to help developers to diagnose energy hotspots with a better accuracy.Concretely, our approach adopts a 2-layer architecture including OS-level and process-level energy monitoring. OS-level energy monitoring estimates the energy consumption of processes according to different hardware devices (CPU, network card). Process-level energy monitoring focuses on Java-based applications and builds on OS-level energy monitoring to provide an estimation of energy consumption at the granularity of classes and methods. We argue that this per-method analysis of energy consumption provides better insights to the application in order to identify potential energy hotspots. In particular, our preliminary validation demonstrates that we can monitor energy hotspots of Jetty web servers and monitor their variations under stress scenarios

    A fuzzy load balancer for adaptive fault tolerance management in cloud platforms

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    This work was partly supported by IC4 (the Irish Centre for Cloud Computing and Commerce), funded by EI and the ID

    A Naturally Occurring Mutation in ropB Suppresses SpeB Expression and Reduces M1T1 Group A Streptococcal Systemic Virulence

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    Epidemiological studies of group A streptococcus (GAS) have noted an inverse relationship between SpeB expression and invasive disease. However, the role of SpeB in the course of infection is still unclear. In this study we utilize a SpeB-negative M1T1 clinical isolate, 5628, with a naturally occurring mutation in the gene encoding the regulator RopB, to elucidate the role of RopB and SpeB in systemic virulence. Allelic exchange mutagenesis was used to replace the mutated ropB allele in 5628 with the intact allele from the well characterized isolate 5448. The inverse allelic exchange was also performed to replace the intact ropB in 5448 with the mutated allele from 5628. An intact ropB was found to be essential for SpeB expression. While the ropB mutation was shown to have no effect on hemolysis of RBC's, extracellular DNase activity or survival in the presence of neutrophils, strains with the mutated ropB allele were less virulent in murine systemic models of infection. An isogenic SpeB knockout strain containing an intact RopB showed similarly reduced virulence. Microarray analysis found genes of the SpeB operon to be the primary target of RopB regulation. These data show that an intact RopB and efficient SpeB production are necessary for systemic infection with GAS

    Jamming at Zero Temperature and Zero Applied Stress: the Epitome of Disorder

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    We have studied how 2- and 3- dimensional systems made up of particles interacting with finite range, repulsive potentials jam (i.e., develop a yield stress in a disordered state) at zero temperature and applied stress. For each configuration, there is a unique jamming threshold, ϕc\phi_c, at which particles can no longer avoid each other and the bulk and shear moduli simultaneously become non-zero. The distribution of ϕc\phi_c values becomes narrower as the system size increases, so that essentially all configurations jam at the same ϕ\phi in the thermodynamic limit. This packing fraction corresponds to the previously measured value for random close-packing. In fact, our results provide a well-defined meaning for "random close-packing" in terms of the fraction of all phase space with inherent structures that jam. The jamming threshold, Point J, occurring at zero temperature and applied stress and at the random close-packing density, has properties reminiscent of an ordinary critical point. As Point J is approached from higher packing fractions, power-law scaling is found for many quantities. Moreover, near Point J, certain quantities no longer self-average, suggesting the existence of a length scale that diverges at J. However, Point J also differs from an ordinary critical point: the scaling exponents do not depend on dimension but do depend on the interparticle potential. Finally, as Point J is approached from high packing fractions, the density of vibrational states develops a large excess of low-frequency modes. All of these results suggest that Point J may control behavior in its vicinity-perhaps even at the glass transition.Comment: 21 pages, 20 figure

    The Evolution of Robust Development and Homeostasis in Artificial Organisms

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    During embryogenesis, multicellular animals are shaped via cell proliferation, cell rearrangement, and apoptosis. At the end of development, tissue architecture is then maintained through balanced rates of cell proliferation and loss. Here, we take an in silico approach to look for generic systems features of morphogenesis in multicellular animals that arise as a consequence of the evolution of development. Using artificial evolution, we evolved cellular automata-based digital organisms that have distinct embryonic and homeostatic phases of development. Although these evolved organisms use a variety of strategies to maintain their form over time, organisms of different types were all found to rapidly recover from environmental damage in the form of wounds. This regenerative response was most robust in an organism with a stratified tissue-like architecture. An evolutionary analysis revealed that evolution itself contributed to the ability of this organism to maintain its form in the face of genetic and environmental perturbation, confirming the results of previous studies. In addition, the exceptional robustness of this organism to surface injury was found to result from an upward flux of cells, driven in part by cell divisions with a stable niche at the tissue base. Given the general nature of the model, our results lead us to suggest that many of the robust systems properties observed in real organisms, including scar-free wound-healing in well-protected embryos and the layered tissue architecture of regenerating epithelial tissues, may be by-products of the evolution of morphogenesis, rather than the direct result of selection

    Impact of Center Experience on Patient Radiation Exposure During Transradial Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Intervention: A Patient-Level, International, Collaborative, Multi-Center Analysis.

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    BACKGROUND: The adoption of the transradial (TR) approach over the traditional transfemoral (TF) approach has been hampered by concerns of increased radiation exposure-a subject of considerable debate within the field. We performed a patient-level, multi-center analysis to definitively address the impact of TR access on radiation exposure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 10 centers were included from 6 countries-Canada (2 centers), United Kingdom (2), Germany (2), Sweden (2), Hungary (1), and The Netherlands (1). We compared the radiation exposure of TR versus TF access using measured dose-area product (DAP). To account for local variations in equipment and exposure, standardized TR:TF DAP ratios were constructed per center with procedures separated by coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Among 57 326 procedures, we demonstrated increased radiation exposure with the TR versus TF approach, particularly in the CA cohort across all centers (weighted-average ratios: CA, 1.15; PCI, 1.05). However, this was mitigated by increasing TR experience in the PCI cohort across all centers (r=-0.8; P=0.005). Over time, as a center transitioned to increasing TR experience (r=0.9; P=0.001), a concomitant decrease in radiation exposure occurred (r=-0.8; P=0.006). Ultimately, when a center's balance of TR to TF procedures approaches 50%, the resultant radiation exposure was equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: The TR approach is associated with a modest increase in patient radiation exposure. However, this increase is eliminated when the TR and TF approaches are used with equal frequency-a guiding principle for centers adopting the TR approach