2,689 research outputs found

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    Preparation and Characterization of Self-Emulsified Docetaxel

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    The aim of this paper was to prepare a self-microemulsifying docetaxel (Dtx) using PLGA, Tetraglycol, Labrasol, and Cremophor ELP. The prepared Dtx-loaded self-microemulsifying system (SMES) showed the initial size of the range of 80–100 nm with narrow size distribution and the negative zeta-potential values. Its morphology was a spherical shape by atomic force microscopy. In experiment of stability, Dtx-loaded SMES prepared in DW and BSA condition showed good stability at 37∘C for 7 days. The viability of the B16F10 cells incubated with Dtx-loaded SMES, Dtx-solution, and Taxol were decreased as a function of incubation time. In conclusion, we confirmed that Dtx-loaded SMES showed an inhibitory effect for proliferation of B16F10 melanoma cells

    Clinical Applications of the Microbiome in Obstetrics

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    Human microbiome refers to the genetic material of approximately 1013 microorganisms present in the human body. These microbiomes interact significantly with the physiological, metabolic, and immune systems, particularly during pregnancy. Microbiome dysbiosis in pregnant women and their fetuses is associated with obstetric complications and poor neonatal outcomes. Oral and gut microbiomes can influence the placenta, uterus, and fetus via hematogenous translocation. Through ascending translocation, vaginal microbiota can directly affect the uterine environment. Current research focuses on the presence of the placental microbiome, which is characterized by low biomass. However, more well-controlled studies are required to specifically address the contamination issues. Use of antibiotics during pregnancy and the mode of delivery, specifically cesarean section, have been linked to the establishment of the neonatal gut microbiome. Probiotic supplementation may be beneficial during pregnancy, particularly for women receiving antibiotic treatment

    The Impact of Fasciation on Maize Inflorescence Architecture

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    How functional genetics research can be applied to improving crop yields is a timely challenge. One of the most direct methods is to produce larger inflorescences with higher productivity, which should be accompanied by a balance between stem cell proliferation and lateral organ initiation in meristems. Unbalanced proliferation of stem cells causes the fasciated inflorescences, which reflect the abnormal proliferation of meristems, derived from the Latin word ‘fascis’, meaning ‘bundle’. Maize, a model system for grain crops, has shown tremendous yield improvements through the mysterious transformation of the female inflorescence during domestication. In this review, we focus on maize inflorescence architecture and highlight the patterns of fasciation, including recent progress

    Mindfulness based interventions in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

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    <b>Background</b> Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a stressful condition; depression, anxiety, pain and fatigue are all common problems. Mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) mitigate stress and prevent relapse in depression and are increasingly being used in healthcare. However, there are currently no systematic reviews of MBIs in people with MS. This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of MBIs in people with MS.<p></p> <b>Methods</b> Systematic searches were carried out in seven major databases, using both subject headings and key words. Papers were screened, data extracted, quality appraised, and analysed by two reviewers independently, using predefined criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Perceived stress was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include mental health, physical health, quality of life, and health service utilisation. Statistical meta-analysis was not possible. Disagreements were adjudicated by a third party reviewer.<p></p> <b>Results</b> Three studies (n = 183 participants) were included in the final analysis. The studies were undertaken in Wales (n = 16, randomised controlled trial - (RCT)), Switzerland (n = 150, RCT), and the United States (n = 17, controlled trial). 146 (80%) participants were female; mean age (SD) was 48.6 (9.4) years. Relapsing remitting MS was the main diagnostic category (n = 123, 67%); 43 (26%) had secondary progressive disease; and the remainder were unspecified. MBIs lasted 6–8 weeks; attrition rates were variable (5-43%); all employed pre- post- measures; two had longer follow up; one at 3, and one at 6 months. Socio-economic status of participants was not made explicit; health service utilisation and costs were not reported. No study reported on perceived stress. All studies reported quality of life (QOL), mental health (anxiety and depression), physical (fatigue, standing balance, pain), and psychosocial measures. Statistically significant beneficial effects relating to QOL, mental health, and selected physical health measures were sustained at 3- and 6- month follow up.<p></p> <b>Conclusion</b> From the limited data available, MBIs may benefit some MS patients in terms of QOL, mental health, and some physical health measures. Further studies are needed to clarify how MBIs might best serve the MS population.<p></p&gt

    In Vivo Biocompatibility Study of Electrospun Chitosan Microfiber for Tissue Engineering

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    In this work, we examined the biocompatibility of electrospun chitosan microfibers as a scaffold. The chitosan microfibers showed a three-dimensional pore structure by SEM. The chitosan microfibers supported attachment and viability of rat muscle-derived stem cells (rMDSCs). Subcutaneous implantation of the chitosan microfibers demonstrated that implantation of rMDSCs containing chitosan microfibers induced lower host tissue responses with decreased macrophage accumulation than did the chitosan microfibers alone, probably due to the immunosuppression of the transplanted rMDSCs. Our results collectively show that chitosan microfibers could serve as a biocompatible in vivo scaffold for rMDSCs in rats

    Is Myocardial Infarction in Patients without Significant Stenosis on a Coronary Angiogram as Benign as Believed?

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    The present study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and 1-year outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients without significant stenosis on a coronary angiogram comparison with the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with significant coronary artery stenosis. A total of 1,220 patients with AMI were retrospectively classified into Group I (≥50% diameter stenosis, n=1,120) and Group II (<50%, n=100). Group II was further divided into two subgroups according to the underlying etiology: cryptogenic (Group II-a, n=54) and those with possible causative factors (Group II-b, n=46). Patients in Group II were younger, were more likely to be women, and were less likely to smoke and to have diabetes mellitus than were patients in Group I. The levels of cardiac enzymes, LDL-cholesterol levels, and the apo-B/A1 ratio were lower in Group II. However, 1-month and 12-month rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were not significantly different between the two groups. The Group II-b subgroup comprised 29 patients with vasospasm, 11 with myocardial bridge, and 6 with spontaneous thrombolysis. Left ventricular ejection fraction and creatinine clearance were lower and levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were higher in Group II-a than in Group II-b. However, outcomes including MACE and mortality at 12 months were not significantly different between the two subgroups. The 1-year outcomes of patients in Group II were similar to those of patients in Group I. The clinical outcomes in Group II-a were also similar to those of Group II-b, although the former group showed higher levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP

    Association of plasma amyloid-β oligomerization with theta/beta ratio in older adults

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    BackgroundOligomeric Aβ (OAβ) is a promising candidate marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnosis. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a potential tool for early detection of AD. Still, whether EEG power ratios, particularly the theta/alpha ratio (TAR) and theta/beta ratio (TBR), reflect Aβ burden—a primary mechanism underlying cognitive impairment and AD. This study investigated the association of TAR and TBR with amyloid burden in older adults based on MDS-OAβ levels.Methods529 individuals (aged ≥60 years) were recruited. All participants underwent EEG (MINDD SCAN, Ybrain Inc., South Korea) and AlzOn™ test (PeopleBio Inc., Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea) for quantifying MDS-OAβ values in the plasma. EEG variables were log-transformed to normalize the data distribution. Using the MDS-OAβ cutoff value (0.78 ng/mL), all participants were classified into two groups: high MDS-OAβ and low MDS-OAβ.ResultsParticipants with high MDS-OAβ levels had significantly higher TARs and TBRs than those with low MDS-OAβ levels. The log-transformed TBRs in the central lobe (β = 0.161, p = 0.0026), frontal lobe (β = 0.145, p = 0.0044), parietal lobe (β = 0.166, p = 0.0028), occipital lobe (β = 0.158, p = 0.0058), and temporal lobe (beta = 0.162, p = 0.0042) were significantly and positively associated with increases in MDS-OAβ levels. After adjusting for the Bonferroni correction, the TBRs in all lobe regions, except the occipital lobe, were significantly associated with increased MDS-OAβ levels.ConclusionWe found a significant association of MDS-OAβ with TBR in older adults. This finding indicates that an increase in amyloid burden may be associated with an increase in the low-frequency band and a decrease in the relatively high-frequency band
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