4 research outputs found

    Diurnal infection patterns and impact of Microcystis cyanophages in a Japanese pond.

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    Viruses play important roles in regulating the abundance, clonal diversity, and composition of their host populations. To assess their impact on the host populations, it is essential to understand the dynamics of virus infections in the natural environment. Cyanophages often carry host-like genes, including photosynthesis genes, which maintain host photosynthesis. This implies a diurnal pattern of cyanophage infection depending on photosynthesis. Here we investigated the infection pattern of Microcystis cyanophage by following the abundances of the Ma-LMM01-type phage tail sheath gene g91 and its transcript in a natural population. The relative g91 mRNA abundance within host cells showed a peak during the daylight hours and was lowest around midnight. The phage g91 DNA copy numbers in host cell fractions, which are predicted to indicate phage replication, increased in the afternoon, followed by an increase in the free-phage fractions. In all fractions, at least 1 of 71 g91 genotypes was observed (in tested host cell, free-phage, and RNA fractions), indicating that the replication cycle of the cyanophage (i.e., injection, transcription, replication, and release of progeny phages) was occurring. Thus, Microcystis cyanophage infection occurs in a diel cycle, which may depend on the light cycle. Additionally, our data show that the abundance of mature cyanophage produced within host cells was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of released phages, suggesting that phage production may be higher than previously reported

    Evaluation of intercellular lipid lamellae in the stratum corneum by polarized microscopy

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    Background Intercellular lipids contain a lamellar structure that glows in polarized images. It could be expected that the intercellular lipid content be estimated from the luminance values calculated from polarized images of stratum corneum strips. Therefore, we attempted to develop a method for simple and rapid evaluation of the intercellular lipid content through a procedure. Herein, we demonstrated a relationship between the luminance value and the amount of ceramides, one of the main components of intercellular lipids. Materials and methods The stratum corneum was collected from the forearm using slides with a pure rubber-based adhesive, which did not produce unnecessary luminescence under polarizing conditions. Images were analyzed using luminance indices. The positive secondary ion peak images were obtained using the time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry; the polarized and brightfield images were obtained using a polarized microscope. The ceramide and protein amount was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and bicinchoninic acid protein assay after microscope imaging. Images and quantitative values were used to construct evaluation models based on a convolutional neural network (CNN). Results There was a correlation between the highlighted areas of the polarized image to overlap with the area where ceramide-derived peak was detected. Evaluation of the CNN-based model of the polarized images predicted the amount of ceramides per unit of stratum corneum. Conclusion The method proposed in the study enabled a large number of specimens to provide a simple, rapid, and efficient evaluation of the intercellular lipid content