30 research outputs found

    Detector Geometry Simulation Using GEANT4

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    Neutrino oscillation is an important phenomenon to explain the massive nature of neutrinos. this quantum mechanical phenomenon can be understood as mixing in quark sector just like the one we have in lepton sector. Observed deficit of solar neutrino flux is explained through neutrino oscillations and this study is the only way to investigate for small difference of neutrino masses thus gives signatures for the physics beyond Standard Model. Experimental results by Superkamiokande put a huge interest of experimentalists in neutrino field. In the present article after discussing the theoretical background of neutrinos and their status in standard model, latest important long baseline neutrino oscillations experiments as NOvA and lBNE has been discussed. Straw tube Detector, an important part of lBNE-near detector, has been reviewed the geometry of which is studied through a software geometry and tracking (geant4). using geant4, an important aspect of detector geometry and simulation has been studied

    Prevalence of stroke and related burden among older people living in Latin America, India and China

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    Objectives Despite the growing importance of stroke in developing countries, little is known of stroke burden in survivors. the authors investigated the prevalence of self-reported stroke, stroke-related disability, dependence and care-giver strain in Latin America (LA), China and India.Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted on individuals aged 65+ (n=15 022) living in specified catchment areas. Self-reported stroke diagnosis, disability, care needs and care giver burden were assessed using a standardised protocol. for those reporting stroke, the correlates of disability, dependence and care-giver burden were estimated at each site using Poisson or linear regression, and combined meta-analytically.Results the prevalence of self-reported stroke ranged between 6% and 9% across most LA sites and urban China, but was much lower in urban India (1.9%), and in rural sites in India (1.1%), China (1.6%) and Peru (2.7%). the proportion of stroke survivors needing care varied between 20% and 39% in LA sites but was higher in rural China (44%), urban China (54%) and rural India (73%). Comorbid dementia and depression were the main correlates of disability and dependence.Conclusion the prevalence of stroke in urban LA and Chinese sites is nearly as high as in industrialised countries. High levels of disability and dependence in the other mainly rural and less-developed sites suggest underascertainment of less severe cases as one likely explanation for the lower prevalence in those settings. As the health transition proceeds, a further increase in numbers of older stroke survivors is to be anticipated. in addition to prevention, stroke rehabilitation and long-term care needs should be addressed.Wellcome TrustWorld Health Organization (India, Dominican Republic and China)US Alzheimer's AssociationFONACIT/ CDCH/ UCV (Venezuela)Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Epidemiol Sect, Hlth Serv, London SE5 8AF, EnglandKings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Clin Neurosci Div, London SE5 8AF, EnglandUniv Nacl Pedro Henriquez Urena, Geriatr Sect, Santo Domingo, Dominican RepUniv Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, PeruPeking Univ, Inst Mental Hlth, Div Social Psychiat & Behav Med, Beijing 100871, Peoples R ChinaChristian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, IndiaMed Univ Havana, Dept Clin Sci, Havana, CubaCaracas Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Caracas, VenezuelaNatl Inst Neurol & Neurosurg Mexico, Mexico City, DF, MexicoVHS, Dept Community Hlth, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, IndiaUniversidade Federal de S√£o Paulo, Dept Psychiat, S√£o Paulo, BrazilUniv Ciencias Med Matanzas, Dept Internal Med, Matanzas, CubaKings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Epidemiol Sect, Populat Res Dept, London SE5 8AF, EnglandUniversidade Federal de S√£o Paulo, Dept Psychiat, S√£o Paulo, BrazilWellcome Trust: GR066133Wellcome Trust: GR08002US Alzheimer's Association: IIRG-04-1286Web of Scienc

    ‚ÄúSoft that molds the hard:‚ÄĚ Geometric morphometry of lateral atlantoaxial joints focusing on the role of cartilage in changing the contour of bony articular surfaces

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    Purpose: The existing literature on lateral atlantoaxial joints is predominantly on bony facets and is unable to explain various C1-2 motions observed. Geometric morphometry of facets would help us in understanding the role of cartilages in C1-2 biomechanics/kinematics. Objective: Anthropometric measurements (bone and cartilage) of the atlantoaxial joint and to assess the role of cartilages in joint biomechanics. Materials and Methods: The authors studied 10 cadaveric atlantoaxial lateral joints with the articular cartilage in situ and after removing it, using three-dimensional laser scanner. The data were compared using geometric morphometry with emphasis on surface contours of articulating surfaces. Results: The bony inferior articular facet of atlas is concave in both sagittal and coronal plane. The bony superior articular facet of axis is convex in sagittal plane and is concave (laterally) and convex medially in the coronal plane. The bony articulating surfaces were nonconcordant. The articular cartilages of both C1 and C2 are biconvex in both planes and are thicker than the concavities of bony articulating surfaces. Conclusion: The biconvex structure of cartilage converts the surface morphology of C1-C2 bony facets from concave on concavo-convex to convex on convex. This reduces the contact point making the six degrees of freedom of motion possible and also makes the joint gyroscopic

    External validation and recalibration of an incidental meningioma prognostic model - IMPACT: protocol for an international multicentre retrospective cohort study

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    Introduction: Due to the increased use of CT and MRI, the prevalence of incidental findings on brain scans is increasing. Meningioma, the most common primary brain tumour, is a frequently encountered incidental finding, with an estimated prevalence of 3/1000. The management of incidental meningioma varies widely with active clinical-radiological monitoring being the most accepted method by clinicians. Duration of monitoring and time intervals for assessment, however, are not well defined. To this end, we have recently developed a statistical model of progression risk based on single-centre retrospective data. The model Incidental Meningioma: Prognostic Analysis Using Patient Comorbidity and MRI Tests (IMPACT) employs baseline clinical and imaging features to categorise the patient with an incidental meningioma into one of three risk groups: low, medium and high risk with a proposed active monitoring strategy based on the risk and temporal trajectory of progression, accounting for actuarial life expectancy. The primary aim of this study is to assess the external validity of this model. Methods and analysis: IMPACT is a retrospective multicentre study which will aim to include 1500 patients with an incidental intracranial meningioma, powered to detect a 10% progression risk. Adult patients ‚Č•16 years diagnosed with an incidental meningioma between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2010 will be included. Clinical and radiological data will be collected longitudinally until the patient reaches one of the study endpoints: intervention (surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated radiotherapy), mortality or last date of follow-up. Data will be uploaded to an online Research Electronic Data Capture database with no unique identifiers. External validity of IMPACT will be tested using established statistical methods. Ethics and dissemination: Local institutional approval at each participating centre will be required. Results of the study will be reported through peer-reviewed articles and conferences and disseminated to participating centres, patients and the public using social media

    Metadata record for: HIT-COVID, a global database tracking public health interventions to COVID-19

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    This dataset contains key characteristics about the data described in the Data Descriptor HIT-COVID, a global database tracking public health interventions to COVID-19. Contents: 1. human readable metadata summary table in CSV format 2. machine readable metadata file in JSON forma

    DUNE Offline Computing Conceptual Design Report

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    This document describes Offline Software and Computing for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) experiment, in particular, the conceptual design of the offline computing needed to accomplish its physics goals. Our emphasis in this document is the development of the computing infrastructure needed to acquire, catalog, reconstruct, simulate and analyze the data from the DUNE experiment and its prototypes. In this effort, we concentrate on developing the tools and systems that facilitate the development and deployment of advanced algorithms. Rather than prescribing particular algorithms, our goal is to provide resources that are flexible and accessible enough to support creative software solutions as HEP computing evolves and to provide computing that achieves the physics goals of the DUNE experiment.This document describes the conceptual design for the Offline Software and Computing for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The goals of the experiment include 1) studying neutrino oscillations using a beam of neutrinos sent from Fermilab in Illinois to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, 2) studying astrophysical neutrino sources and rare processes and 3) understanding the physics of neutrino interactions in matter. We describe the development of the computing infrastructure needed to achieve the physics goals of the experiment by storing, cataloging, reconstructing, simulating, and analyzing ‚ąľ\sim 30 PB of data/year from DUNE and its prototypes. Rather than prescribing particular algorithms, our goal is to provide resources that are flexible and accessible enough to support creative software solutions and advanced algorithms as HEP computing evolves. We describe the physics objectives, organization, use cases, and proposed technical solutions

    DUNE Offline Computing Conceptual Design Report

    No full text
    This document describes Offline Software and Computing for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) experiment, in particular, the conceptual design of the offline computing needed to accomplish its physics goals. Our emphasis in this document is the development of the computing infrastructure needed to acquire, catalog, reconstruct, simulate and analyze the data from the DUNE experiment and its prototypes. In this effort, we concentrate on developing the tools and systems thatfacilitate the development and deployment of advanced algorithms. Rather than prescribing particular algorithms, our goal is to provide resources that are flexible and accessible enough to support creative software solutions as HEP computing evolves and to provide computing that achieves the physics goals of the DUNE experiment
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