1,767 research outputs found

    An updated distribution of Solidago √óniederederi (Asteraceae) in Poland

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    In this paper, an updated map of the distribution of Solidago √óniederederi, a natural hybrid between S. canadensis and S. virgaurea, in Poland is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method. A compiled list of 55 localities of the hybrid within 40 cartogram units (10-km squares) is provided and its negative impact on S. virgaurea is highlighted

    Unbiased Sampling for Rodents and Other Small Mammals: How to Overcome Neophobia Through Use of an Electronic-Triggered Live Trap‚ÄĒA Preliminary Test

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    Live-trapping of urban rodents and other small mammals poses several challenges for researchers and pest control professionals (PMPs). Most traps are novel to the natural environment and elicit neophobic, or trap-shy, behaviors. Thus, animals captured in traditional traps may either be the least risk-averse, or most desperate. Consequently, individuals of the lowest social ranks, those in poorest health, and the slowest learners are more likely to be captured. This is problematic for research because non-random samples may lead to over-generalization and false conclusions. To address these problems, we developed an inconspicuous, hanging live-trap prototype. In addition to being hard to detect, the trap enables setting several parameters of animal movement and detection before the trap is triggered. The neophobic reaction could then be significantly reduced because animals do not need to enter any trap-like objects‚ÄĒinstead they move and feed on a familiar surface. At a time predefined by the user, the triggering mechanism drops a transparent cover over the animal, preventing it from fleeing and enabling either transport to the laboratory, mark-and-release or disposal. Here, we report our initial purpose, design and preliminary results. Animals triggered the trap 34 times during our 1-month preliminary assessment. During this time, 32 individuals were captured (25 Norway rats and 7 house mice) for a 94% catch rate. Video surveillance revealed no obvious signs of non-random sampling as all trapped rats were representative of a broad range of sizes and ages. There were no signs of low social status (e.g., scar markings, parasitism, or poor health). Importantly, we found a low latency following capture, as released animals showed no instances of increased exploratory or cautious behaviors such as rearing or sniffing, near the hidden traps. More monitoring of this design is needed before future conclusions can be drawn. However, these results should encourage a full range of experimental trials from neuroscientists, urban ecologists, pest control professionals (PMPs) and conservationists who seek randomized samples or who work with trap-shy species

    Bayesian Implications of Current LHC and XENON100 Search Limits for the Constrained MSSM

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    The CMS Collaboration has released the results of its search for supersymmetry, by applying an alphaT method to 1.1/fb of data at 7 TeV. The null result excludes (at 95% CL) a low-mass region of the Constrained MSSM's parameter space that was previously favored by other experiments. Additionally, the negative result of the XENON100 dark matter search has excluded (at 90% CL) values of the spin-independent scattering cross sections sigma^SI_p as low as 10^-8 pb. We incorporate these improved experimental constraints into a global Bayesian fit of the Constrained MSSM by constructing approximate likelihood functions. In the case of the alphaT limit, we simulate detector efficiency for the CMS alphaT 1.1/fb and validate our method against the official 95% CL contour. We identify the 68% and 95% credible posterior regions of the CMSSM parameters, and also find the best-fit point. We find that the credible regions change considerably once a likelihood from alphaT is included, in particular the narrow light Higgs resonance region becomes excluded, but the focus point/horizontal branch region remains allowed at the 1sigma level. Adding the limit from XENON100 has a weaker additional effect, in part due to large uncertainties in evaluating sigma^SI_p, which we include in a conservative way, although we find that it reduces the posterior probability of the focus point region to the 2sigma level. The new regions of high posterior favor squarks lighter than the gluino and all but one Higgs bosons heavy. The dark matter neutralino mass is found in the range 250 GeV <~ m_Chi1 <~ 343 GeV (at 1sigma) while, as the result of improved limits from the LHC, the favored range of sigma^SI_p is pushed down to values below 10^{-9} pb. We highlight tension between (g-2)_mu and BR(b->sg), which is exacerbated by including the alphaT limit; each constraint favors a different region of the CMSSM's mass parameters.Comment: Accepted by PRD. Added discussions on prior dependence and the p-value. Main conclusions unchanged. 21 pages, 12 figure

    Synchronization methods for the PAC RPC trigger system in the CMS experiment

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    The PAC (pattern comparator) is a dedicated muon trigger for the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The PAC trigger processes signals provided by RPC (resistive plate chambers), a part of the CMS muon system. The goal of the PAC RPC trigger is to identify muons, measure their transverse momenta and select the best muon candidates for each proton bunch collision occurring every 25 ns. To perform this task it is necessary to deliver the information concerning each bunch crossing from many RPC chambers to the trigger logic at the same moment. Since the CMS detector is large (the muon hits are spread over 40 ns), and the data are transmitted through thousands of channels, special techniques are needed to assure proper synchronization of the data. In this paper methods developed for the RPC signal synchronization and synchronous transmission are presented. The methods were tested during the MTCC (magnet test and cosmic challenge). The performance of the synchronization methods is illustrated by the results of the tests

    PIPS: Pathogenicity Island Prediction Software

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    The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1) deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2) insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS). In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an