98 research outputs found

    Using ontologies to support and critique decisions

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    Supporting decision making in the working environment has long being pursued by practitioners across a variety of fields, ranging from sociology and operational research to cognitive and computer scientists. A number of computer-supported systems and various technologies have been used over the years, but as we move into more global and flexible organisational structures, new technologies and challenges arise. In this paper, I argue for an ontology-based solution and present some of the early prototypes we have been developing, assess their impact on the decision making process and elaborate on the costs involved

    Knowledge society arguments revisited in the semantic technologies era

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    In the light of high profile governmental and international efforts to realise the knowledge society, I review the arguments made for and against it from a technology standpoint. I focus on advanced knowledge technologies with applications on a large scale and in open- ended environments like the World Wide Web and its ambitious extension, the Semantic Web. I argue for a greater role of social networks in a knowledge society and I explore the recent developments in mechanised trust, knowledge certification, and speculate on their blending with traditional societal institutions. These form the basis of a sketched roadmap for enabling technologies for a knowledge society

    Issues with Evaluating and Using Publicly Available Ontologies

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    The proliferation of ontologies in the public domain and the ease of accessing them offers new opportunities for knowledge sharing and interoperability in an open, distributed environment, but it also poses interesting challenges for knowledge and Web engineers alike. In this paper we discuss and analyse those challenges with emphasis on the need to evaluate publicly available ontologies prior to use. We elaborate on a number of issues ranging from technological concerns to strategic and political issues. We drawn our experiences from the field of ontology mapping on the Semantic Web, a necessity that enables many of Semantic Web's proclaimed features

    Institutionalising Ontology-Based Semantic Integration

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    We address what is still a scarcity of general mathematical foundations for ontology-based semantic integration underlying current knowledge engineering methodologies in decentralised and distributed environments. After recalling the first-order ontology-based approach to semantic integration and a formalisation of ontological commitment, we propose a general theory that uses a syntax-and interpretation-independent formulation of language, ontology, and ontological commitment in terms of institutions. We claim that our formalisation generalises the intuitive notion of ontology-based semantic integration while retaining its basic insight, and we apply it for eliciting and hence comparing various increasingly complex notions of semantic integration and ontological commitment based on differing understandings of semantics

    Progressive Ontology Alignment for Meaning Coordination: an Information-Theoretic Foundation

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    We elaborate on the mathematical foundations of the meaning coordination problem that agents face in open environments. We investigate to which extend the Barwise-Seligman theory of information flow provides a faithful theoretical description of the partial semantic integration that two agents achieve as they progressively align their underlying ontologies through the sharing of tokens, such as instances. We also discuss the insights and practical implications of the Barwise-Seligman theory with respect to the general meaning coordination proble

    Ontology mapping: the state of the art

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    Ontology mapping is seen as a solution provider in today's landscape of ontology research. As the number of ontologies that are made publicly available and accessible on the Web increases steadily, so does the need for applications to use them. A single ontology is no longer enough to support the tasks envisaged by a distributed environment like the Semantic Web. Multiple ontologies need to be accessed from several applications. Mapping could provide a common layer from which several ontologies could be accessed and hence could exchange information in semantically sound manners. Developing such mapping has beeb the focus of a variety of works originating from diverse communities over a number of years. In this article we comprehensively review and present these works. We also provide insights on the pragmatics of ontology mapping and elaborate on a theoretical approach for defining ontology mapping

    The Information-Flow Approach to Ontology-Based Semantic Integration

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    In this article we argue for the lack of formal foundations for ontology-based semantic alignment. We analyse and formalise the basic notions of semantic matching and alignment and we situate them in the context of ontology-based alignment in open-ended and distributed environments, like the Web. We then use the mathematical notion of information flow in a distributed system to ground three hypotheses that enable semantic alignment. We draw our exemplar applications of this work from a variety of interoperability scenarios including ontology mapping, theory of semantic interoperability, progressive ontology alignment, and situated semantic alignment

    Enterprise engineering using semantic technologies

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    Modern Enterprises are facing unprecedented challenges in every aspect of their businesses: from marketing research, invention of products, prototyping, production, sales to billing. Innovation is the key to enhancing enterprise performances and knowledge is the main driving force in creating innovation. The identification and effective management of valuable knowledge, however, remains an illusive topic. Knowledge management (KM) techniques, such as enterprise process modelling, have long been recognised for their value and practiced as part of normal business. There are plentiful of KM techniques. However, what is still lacking is a holistic KM approach that enables one to fully connect KM efforts with existing business knowledge and practices already in IT systems, such as organisational memories. To address this problem, we present an integrated three-dimensional KM approach that supports innovative semantics technologies. Its automated formal methods allow us to tap into modern business practices and capitalise on existing knowledge. It closes the knowledge management cycle with user feedback loops. Since we are making use of reliable existing knowledge and methods, new knowledge can be extracted with less effort comparing with another method where new information has to be created from scratch

    Knowledge management support for enterprise distributed systems

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    Explosion of information and increasing demands on semantic processing web applications have software systems to their limits. To address the problem we propose a semantic based formal framework (ADP) that makes use of promising technologies to enable knowledge generation and retrieval. We argue that this approach is cost effective, as it reuses and builds on existing knowledge and structure. It is also a good starting point for creating an organisational memory and providing knowledge management functions

    Deploying ontologies in software design

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    In this thesis we will be concerned with the relation between ontologies and software design. Ontologies are studied in the artificial intelligence community as a means to explicitly represent standardised domain knowledge in order to enable knowledge shar¬ ing and reuse. We deploy ontologies in software design with emphasis on a traditional software engineering theme: error detection. In particular, we identify a type of error that is often difficult to detect: conceptual errors. These are related to the description of the domain whom which the system will operate. They require subjective knowledge about correct forms of domain description to detect them. Ontologies provide these forms of domain description and we are interested in applying them and verify their correctness(chapter 1). After presenting an in depth analysis of the field of ontologies and software testing as conceived and implemented by the software engineering and artificial intelligence communities(chapter 2), we discuss an approach which enabled us to deploy ontologies in the early phases of software development (i.e., specifications) in order to detect conceptual errors (chapter 3). This is based on the provision of ontological axioms which are used to verify conformance of specification constructs to the underpinning ontology. To facilitate the integration of ontology with applications that adopt it we developed an architecture and built tools to implement this form of conceptual error check(chapter 4). We apply and evaluate the architecture in a variety of contexts to identify potential uses (chapter 5). An implication of this method for de¬ ploying ontologies to reason about the correctness of applications is to raise our trust in the given ontologies. However, when the ontologies themselves are erroneous we might fail to reveal pernicious discrepancies. To cope with this problem we extended the architecture to a multi-layer form(chapter 4) which gives us the ability to check the ontologies themselves for correctness. We apply this multi-layer architecture to cap¬ ture errors found in a complex ontologies lattice(chapter 6). We further elaborate on the weaknesses in ontology evaluation methods and employ a technique stemming from software engineering, that of experience management, to facilitate ontology testing and deployment(chapter 7). The work presented in this thesis aims to improve practice in ontology use and identify areas to which ontologies could be of benefits other than the advocated ones of knowledge sharing and reuse(chapter 8)