7 research outputs found

    Infrastructure costs and benefits of European high-speed rail

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    The development of new technologies has significantly influenced railways modernization and has caused the appearance of high-speed rail which represent a safe, comfortable and ecologically sustainable way of transportation. The high-speed rail present a big step in a relation to conventional railways, where the biggest difference is speed which even entails a change of other organizational and operational parameters, better utilization of trains, higher performance of manpower and better service to users.  That is visible in many cities around the world where high-speed trains are used by billions of users. In the EU there is no unique high-speed railway network, besides that in many EU member countries various operational models are applied. The future of the high-speed railways market depends on political, economical and technical factors and challenges as high infrastructure costs, various rates of return on investment and the negative effects of economic crises. The main objective of the paper is to analyze infrastucture costs of high-speed rail in Europe and benefits such us  time savings, higher reliability, comfort, safety, reducing pollution and the release of capacity in the conventional rail network, roads and airport infrastructure

    Development of mobile communication systems for high-speed railway

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    Development of high-speed railways set up challenges for new communication technologies. With the increase in speed, new requirements for communication systems have emerged that HSR requires greater reliability, capacity and shorter response time for efficient and safe operations. Mobile communication systems are crucial for the competitiveness of the railway industry and therefore have become one of the priorities addressed by the participants in the railway system to take advantage of technological opportunities to improve operational processes and the quality of provided transport services. The European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) uses the Global System for Mobile Communications for Railways (GSM-R) for voice and data communication to communicate between trains and control centers. The International Railway Union is exploring new ways of communicating for high-speed railways because as speed increases this system becomes unreliable in information transmission. This paperwork presents an analysis of the evolution of communications on European railways since the usage of GSM-R. In addition, an overview of the various alternative solutions proposed during the time (LTE-R, Future Railway Mobile Communication System) as possible successors to GSM-R technology is given

    The Selection of a Possible Organizational Structure of Railway Companies by Application Fuzzy-ARAS Method

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    The European railway sector doesn't represent a single, generic type of organizational structure. The Directives from the 1990s offer the possibility for national interpretation giving a wide range of organizational structures for European railways. Different organizational structures of railways are present in the European railway market, and all of them are aligned with the national belief of the country - how to manage the railway. This paper focuses on Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods for ranking and selecting organizational structures of railways. In decision-making, we deal with different types of uncertainty and inaccuracy. For this purpose, we need to use some specific tools. In this paper, we use triangular fuzzy numbers to quantify linguistic data. To overcome the complexity of the decision-making problem, we propose the fuzzy Additive Ratio ASsessment (ARAS) method, which also includes linguistic variables and a group approach to decision-making. With the proposed methodology an evaluation of the alternatives to the organization structure of the railway company in Bosnia and Herzegovina is considered. Separation of railway transport from infrastructure management is ranked as the best organizational structure for this company


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    In the present-day environment pertaining to digitalisation, increasing competition on the market and changes in industries, the CRM as a system is an essential tool for success. The issue of CRM system application in higher education institutions is insufficiently researched, especially in the parts that should indicate a clear connection between participants in higher education and CRM in higher education institutions, and factors that decision makers should pay attention to when making decisions about CRM implementation. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to research the functionality, application and advantages of CRM in the higher education sector, and to determine the features that will facilitate effective decision-making on the implementation of CRM. As a result of the research, a proposal for a conceptual model/framework of CRM was presented. The proposal is presented for the purpose of making appropriate decisions for higher education institutions when it comes to developing their own or purchasing a ready-made CRM solution. From the scientific aspect, the paper contributes to the existing literature by providing decision makers with an insight into the structure of the CRM system, its elements, connections and functionalities, as well as a description of the model with the information they need to pay attention to when making decisions

    Epidemiology and outcomes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in intensive care unit patients: the EUROBACT-2 international cohort study

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    Purpose In the critically ill, hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HA-BSI) are associated with significant mortality. Granular data are required for optimizing management, and developing guidelines and clinical trials. Methods We carried out a prospective international cohort study of adult patients (≥ 18 years of age) with HA-BSI treated in intensive care units (ICUs) between June 2019 and February 2021. Results 2600 patients from 333 ICUs in 52 countries were included. 78% HA-BSI were ICU-acquired. Median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8 [IQR 5; 11] at HA-BSI diagnosis. Most frequent sources of infection included pneumonia (26.7%) and intravascular catheters (26.4%). Most frequent pathogens were Gram-negative bacteria (59.0%), predominantly Klebsiella spp. (27.9%), Acinetobacter spp. (20.3%), Escherichia coli (15.8%), and Pseudomonas spp. (14.3%). Carbapenem resistance was present in 37.8%, 84.6%, 7.4%, and 33.2%, respectively. Difficult-to-treat resistance (DTR) was present in 23.5% and pan-drug resistance in 1.5%. Antimicrobial therapy was deemed adequate within 24 h for 51.5%. Antimicrobial resistance was associated with longer delays to adequate antimicrobial therapy. Source control was needed in 52.5% but not achieved in 18.2%. Mortality was 37.1%, and only 16.1% had been discharged alive from hospital by day-28. Conclusions HA-BSI was frequently caused by Gram-negative, carbapenem-resistant and DTR pathogens. Antimicrobial resistance led to delays in adequate antimicrobial therapy. Mortality was high, and at day-28 only a minority of the patients were discharged alive from the hospital. Prevention of antimicrobial resistance and focusing on adequate antimicrobial therapy and source control are important to optimize patient management and outcomes