26 research outputs found

    Rolandic Epilepsy: Self-Limited Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

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    Childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, had been previously considered as benign childhood epilepsy. According to the new classification proposed by Sheffer I. and colleagues the term “benign” has been changed to “self-limited”. Many studies reported that BECTS may cause transient or long lasting cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Rolandic epilepsy is the most frequent among the childhood focal epilepsy and may account for about 15–25% of all epileptic syndromes diagnosed between the ages of 5 to 15 years. The incidence range changes between 7.1–21 per 100000 in population younger than 15 years with male predominance. The age of onset in 90% of cases between 1 and 10 years with peak around 6–7 years. Seizures mainly occur during a night sleep, whereas the probability of awake seizures are less than 10%. The characteristic clinical features are: (1) focal motor seizure with unilateral orofacial tonic or clonic contractions; (2) speech arrest; (3) hypersalivation; (4) sensory symptoms represented by unilateral numbness or paresthesia of tongue, lips, gum and inner part of the check; (5) unilateral clonic jerk in leg and arm with postictal paresis; (6) generalized seizures. The EEG picture is distinctive in Rolandic epilepsy. The background activity is almost always preserved in awake state and during a sleep. The typical interictal EEG pattern is high voltage, diphasic spikes or sharp waves frequently with slow activity on central-midtemporal region. The centrotemporal spikes or rolandic spikes come from the lower rolandic region created a horizontal dipole with maximal electronegativity in the centrotemporal region and electropositivity in the frontal region usually seen unilateral or bilateral. In most cases children with RE have a good prognosis regarding both seizures and neurodevelopment. The remission of seizures usually occurs before the age of 18 years. The cognitive and behavior problem may happen in active period of disease which are reversable in most of patients

    GGPS1-associated muscular dystrophy with and without hearing loss

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    Ultra-rare biallelic pathogenic variants in geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (GGPS1) have recently been associated with muscular dystrophy/hearing loss/ovarian insufficiency syndrome. Here, we describe 11 affected individuals from four unpublished families with ultra-rare missense variants in GGPS1 and provide follow-up details from a previously reported family. Our cohort replicated most of the previously described clinical features of GGPS1 deficiency; however, hearing loss was present in only 46% of the individuals. This report consolidates the disease-causing role of biallelic variants in GGPS1 and demonstrates that hearing loss and ovarian insufficiency might be a variable feature of the GGPS1-associated muscular dystrophy

    Bi-allelic ACBD6 variants lead to a neurodevelopmental syndrome with progressive and complex movement disorders

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    The acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein 6 (ACBD6) is ubiquitously expressed, plays a role in the acylation of lipids and proteins, and regulates the N-myristoylation of proteins via N-myristoyltransferase enzymes (NMTs). However, its precise function in cells is still unclear, as is the consequence of ACBD6 defects on human pathophysiology. Utilizing exome sequencing and extensive international data sharing efforts, we identified 45 affected individuals from 28 unrelated families (consanguinity 93%) with bi-allelic pathogenic, predominantly loss-of-function (18/20) variants in ACBD6. We generated zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis acbd6 knockouts by CRISPR/Cas9 and characterized the role of ACBD6 on protein N-myristoylation with YnMyr chemical proteomics in the model organisms and human cells, with the latter also being subjected further to ACBD6 peroxisomal localization studies. The affected individuals (23 males and 22 females), with ages ranging from 1 to 50 years old, typically present with a complex and progressive disease involving moderate-to-severe global developmental delay/intellectual disability (100%) with significant expressive language impairment (98%), movement disorders (97%), facial dysmorphism (95%), and mild cerebellar ataxia (85%) associated with gait impairment (94%), limb spasticity/hypertonia (76%), oculomotor (71%) and behavioural abnormalities (65%), overweight (59%), microcephaly (39%) and epilepsy (33%). The most conspicuous and common movement disorder was dystonia (94%), frequently leading to early-onset progressive postural deformities (97%), limb dystonia (55%), and cervical dystonia (31%). A jerky tremor in the upper limbs (63%), a mild head tremor (59%), parkinsonism/hypokinesia developing with advancing age (32%), and simple motor and vocal tics were among other frequent movement disorders. Midline brain malformations including corpus callosum abnormalities (70%), hypoplasia/agenesis of the anterior commissure (66%), short midbrain and small inferior cerebellar vermis (38% each), as well as hypertrophy of the clava (24%) were common neuroimaging findings. acbd6-deficient zebrafish and Xenopus models effectively recapitulated many clinical phenotypes reported in patients including movement disorders, progressive neuromotor impairment, seizures, microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, and midbrain defects accompanied by developmental delay with increased mortality over time. Unlike ACBD5, ACBD6 did not show a peroxisomal localisation and ACBD6-deficiency was not associated with altered peroxisomal parameters in patient fibroblasts. Significant differences in YnMyr-labelling were observed for 68 co- and 18 post-translationally N-myristoylated proteins in patient-derived fibroblasts. N-Myristoylation was similarly affected in acbd6-deficient zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis models, including Fus, Marcks, and Chchd-related proteins implicated in neurological diseases. The present study provides evidence that bi-allelic pathogenic variants in ACBD6 lead to a distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome accompanied by complex and progressive cognitive and movement disorders

    Identification of novel risk loci, causal insights, and heritable risk for Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies

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    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Parkinson's disease have increased the scope of biological knowledge about the disease over the past decade. We aimed to use the largest aggregate of GWAS data to identify novel risk loci and gain further insight into the causes of Parkinson's disease. Methods We did a meta-analysis of 17 datasets from Parkinson's disease GWAS available from European ancestry samples to nominate novel loci for disease risk. These datasets incorporated all available data. We then used these data to estimate heritable risk and develop predictive models of this heritability. We also used large gene expression and methylation resources to examine possible functional consequences as well as tissue, cell type, and biological pathway enrichments for the identified risk factors. Additionally, we examined shared genetic risk between Parkinson's disease and other phenotypes of interest via genetic correlations followed by Mendelian randomisation. Findings Between Oct 1, 2017, and Aug 9, 2018, we analysed 7·8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in 37 688 cases, 18 618 UK Biobank proxy-cases (ie, individuals who do not have Parkinson's disease but have a first degree relative that does), and 1·4 million controls. We identified 90 independent genome-wide significant risk signals across 78 genomic regions, including 38 novel independent risk signals in 37 loci. These 90 variants explained 16–36% of the heritable risk of Parkinson's disease depending on prevalence. Integrating methylation and expression data within a Mendelian randomisation framework identified putatively associated genes at 70 risk signals underlying GWAS loci for follow-up functional studies. Tissue-specific expression enrichment analyses suggested Parkinson's disease loci were heavily brain-enriched, with specific neuronal cell types being implicated from single cell data. We found significant genetic correlations with brain volumes (false discovery rate-adjusted p=0·0035 for intracranial volume, p=0·024 for putamen volume), smoking status (p=0·024), and educational attainment (p=0·038). Mendelian randomisation between cognitive performance and Parkinson's disease risk showed a robust association (p=8·00 × 10−7). Interpretation These data provide the most comprehensive survey of genetic risk within Parkinson's disease to date, to the best of our knowledge, by revealing many additional Parkinson's disease risk loci, providing a biological context for these risk factors, and showing that a considerable genetic component of this disease remains unidentified. These associations derived from European ancestry datasets will need to be followed-up with more diverse data. Funding The National Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health (USA), The Michael J Fox Foundation, and The Parkinson's Foundation (see appendix for full list of funding sources)

    Identification of candidate Parkinson disease genes by integrating genome-wide association study, expression, and epigenetic data sets

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    Importance Substantial genome-wide association study (GWAS) work in Parkinson disease (PD) has led to the discovery of an increasing number of loci shown reliably to be associated with increased risk of disease. Improved understanding of the underlying genes and mechanisms at these loci will be key to understanding the pathogenesis of PD. Objective To investigate what genes and genomic processes underlie the risk of sporadic PD. Design and Setting This genetic association study used the bioinformatic tools Coloc and transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to integrate PD case-control GWAS data published in 2017 with expression data (from Braineac, the Genotype-Tissue Expression [GTEx], and CommonMind) and methylation data (derived from UK Parkinson brain samples) to uncover putative gene expression and splicing mechanisms associated with PD GWAS signals. Candidate genes were further characterized using cell-type specificity, weighted gene coexpression networks, and weighted protein-protein interaction networks. Main Outcomes and Measures It was hypothesized a priori that some genes underlying PD loci would alter PD risk through changes to expression, splicing, or methylation. Candidate genes are presented whose change in expression, splicing, or methylation are associated with risk of PD as well as the functional pathways and cell types in which these genes have an important role. Results Gene-level analysis of expression revealed 5 genes (WDR6 [OMIM 606031], CD38 [OMIM 107270], GPNMB [OMIM 604368], RAB29 [OMIM 603949], and TMEM163 [OMIM 618978]) that replicated using both Coloc and TWAS analyses in both the GTEx and Braineac expression data sets. A further 6 genes (ZRANB3 [OMIM 615655], PCGF3 [OMIM 617543], NEK1 [OMIM 604588], NUPL2 [NCBI 11097], GALC [OMIM 606890], and CTSB [OMIM 116810]) showed evidence of disease-associated splicing effects. Cell-type specificity analysis revealed that gene expression was overall more prevalent in glial cell types compared with neurons. The weighted gene coexpression performed on the GTEx data set showed that NUPL2 is a key gene in 3 modules implicated in catabolic processes associated with protein ubiquitination and in the ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process in the nucleus accumbens, caudate, and putamen. TMEM163 and ZRANB3 were both important in modules in the frontal cortex and caudate, respectively, indicating regulation of signaling and cell communication. Protein interactor analysis and simulations using random networks demonstrated that the candidate genes interact significantly more with known mendelian PD and parkinsonism proteins than would be expected by chance. Conclusions and Relevance Together, these results suggest that several candidate genes and pathways are associated with the findings observed in PD GWAS studies

    Biallelic MED27 variants lead to variable ponto-cerebello-lental degeneration with movement disorders

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    MED27 is a subunit of the Mediator multiprotein complex, which is involved in transcriptional regulation. Biallelic MED27 variants have recently been suggested to be responsible for an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity, cataracts, and cerebellar hypoplasia. We further delineate the clinical phenotype of MED27-related disease by characterizing the clinical and radiological features of 57 affected individuals from 30 unrelated families with biallelic MED27 variants. Utilizing exome sequencing and extensive international genetic data sharing, 39 unpublished affected individuals from 18 independent families with biallelic missense variants in MED27 have been identified (29 females, mean age at last follow-up 17±12.4 years, range 0.1-45). Follow-up and hitherto unreported clinical features were obtained from the published 12 families. Brain MRI scans from 34 cases were reviewed. MED27-related disease manifests as a broad phenotypic continuum ranging from developmental and epileptic-dyskinestic encephalopathy to variable neurodevelopmental disorder with movement abnormalities. It is characterised by mild to profound global developmental delay/intellectual disability (100%), bilateral cataracts (89%), infantile hypotonia (74%), microcephaly (62%), gait ataxia (63%), dystonia (61%), variably combined with epilepsy (50%), limb spasticity (51%), facial dysmorphism (38%), and death before reaching adulthood (16%). Brain MRI revealed cerebellar atrophy (100%), white matter volume loss (76.4%), pontine hypoplasia (47.2%), and basal ganglia atrophy with signal alterations (44.4%). Previously unreported 39 affected individuals had seven homozygous pathogenic missense MED27 variants, five of which were recurrent. An emerging genotype-phenotype correlation was observed. This study provides a comprehensive clinical-radiological description of MED27-related disease, establishes genotype-phenotype and clinical-radiological correlations, and suggests a differential diagnosis with syndromes of cerebello-lental neurodegeneration and other subtypes of neuro-MEDopathies

    LRRK2 Mutations and Asian Disease-Associated Variants in the First Parkinson’s Disease Cohort from Kazakhstan

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    Background. LRRK2 mutations have emerged as the most prevalent and potentially treatable determinants of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Peculiar geographic distribution of these mutations has triggered an interest in genotyping PD cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds for LRRK. Objective. Here, we report on the results of LRRK2 screening in the first Central Asian PD cohort. Methods. 246 PD patients were consecutively recruited by movement disorder specialists from four medical centers in Kazakhstan, and clinicodemographic data and genomic DNA from blood were systematically obtained and shipped to the Institute of Neurology University College London together with DNAs from 200 healthy controls. The cohort was genotyped for five LRRK2 mutations (p.Gly2019Ser, p.Arg1441His, p.Tyr1699Cys, p.Ile2020Thr, and p.Asn1437His) and three East Asian disease-associated variants (p.Gly2385Arg, p.Ala419Val, and p.Arg1628Pro) via Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay analysis. Results. None of the study subjects carried LRRK2 mutations, whereas the following Asian variants were found with insignificant odds ratios (OR): p.Gly2385Arg (1.2%, minor allele frequency (MAF) 0.007, OR 1.25, p=0.8), p.Ala419Val (3.7%, MAF 0.02, OR 1.5, p=0.4), and p.Arg1628Pro was found only in 1% of controls. p.Gly2385Arg was positive in a big family with PD and tremor, although with incomplete segregation. One early-onset PD subject was homozygous for p.Ala419Val who developed fast progression and severe dyskinesias. p.Ala419Val was associated with early-onset PD. Conclusions. We showed that East Asian LRRK variants could be found in Central Asian populations but their pathogenicity remains to be elucidated in larger PD cohorts

    AP4B1-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia: Expansion of clinico-genetic phenotype and geographic range

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    BACKGROUND: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases that present with weakness and stiffness in the lower limb muscles and lead to progressive neurological decline. Bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in genes that encode subunits of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) lead to complex HSP. This study aimed to identify causative genetic variants in consanguineous families with HSP from Azerbaijan and Pakistan. METHODS: We performed a thorough clinical and neuroradiological characterization followed by exome sequencing in 7 patients from 3 unrelated families. Segregation analysis was subsequently performed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: We describe 7 patients (4 males, 2-31 years of age) with developmental delay and spasticity. Similar to the previously reported cases with AP4B1-associated HSP, cases in the present report besides spasticity in the lower limbs had additional features including microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, infantile hypotonia, and epilepsy. The imaging findings included thin corpus callosum, white matter loss, and ventriculomegaly. CONCLUSION: In this study, we report 7 novel cases of HSP caused by bi-allelic variants in AP4B1 in Azerbaijani and Pakistani families. Our observations will help clinicians observe and compare common and unique clinical features of AP4B1-associated HSP patients, further improving our current understanding of HSP
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