23 research outputs found

    Inversion, Iteration, and the Art of Dual Wielding

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    The humble \dagger ("dagger") is used to denote two different operations in category theory: Taking the adjoint of a morphism (in dagger categories) and finding the least fixed point of a functional (in categories enriched in domains). While these two operations are usually considered separately from one another, the emergence of reversible notions of computation shows the need to consider how the two ought to interact. In the present paper, we wield both of these daggers at once and consider dagger categories enriched in domains. We develop a notion of a monotone dagger structure as a dagger structure that is well behaved with respect to the enrichment, and show that such a structure leads to pleasant inversion properties of the fixed points that arise as a result. Notably, such a structure guarantees the existence of fixed point adjoints, which we show are intimately related to the conjugates arising from a canonical involutive monoidal structure in the enrichment. Finally, we relate the results to applications in the design and semantics of reversible programming languages.Comment: Accepted for RC 201

    Condition/Decision Duality and the Internal Logic of Extensive Restriction Categories

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    In flowchart languages, predicates play an interesting double role. In the textual representation, they are often presented as conditions, i.e., expressions which are easily combined with other conditions (often via Boolean combinators) to form new conditions, though they only play a supporting role in aiding branching statements choose a branch to follow. On the other hand, in the graphical representation they are typically presented as decisions, intrinsically capable of directing control flow yet mostly oblivious to Boolean combination. While categorical treatments of flowchart languages are abundant, none of them provide a treatment of this dual nature of predicates. In the present paper, we argue that extensive restriction categories are precisely categories that capture such a condition/decision duality, by means of morphisms which, coincidentally, are also called decisions. Further, we show that having these categorical decisions amounts to having an internal logic: Analogous to how subobjects of an object in a topos form a Heyting algebra, we show that decisions on an object in an extensive restriction category form a De Morgan quasilattice, the algebraic structure associated with the (three-valued) weak Kleene logic K3w\mathbf{K}^w_3. Full classical propositional logic can be recovered by restricting to total decisions, yielding extensive categories in the usual sense, and confirming (from a different direction) a result from effectus theory that predicates on objects in extensive categories form Boolean algebras. As an application, since (categorical) decisions are partial isomorphisms, this approach provides naturally reversible models of classical propositional logic and weak Kleene logic.Comment: 19 pages, including 6 page appendix of proofs. Accepted for MFPS XXX

    A categorical foundation for structured reversible flowchart languages: Soundness and adequacy

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    Structured reversible flowchart languages is a class of imperative reversible programming languages allowing for a simple diagrammatic representation of control flow built from a limited set of control flow structures. This class includes the reversible programming language Janus (without recursion), as well as more recently developed reversible programming languages such as R-CORE and R-WHILE. In the present paper, we develop a categorical foundation for this class of languages based on inverse categories with joins. We generalize the notion of extensivity of restriction categories to one that may be accommodated by inverse categories, and use the resulting decisions to give a reversible representation of predicates and assertions. This leads to a categorical semantics for structured reversible flowcharts, which we show to be computationally sound and adequate, as well as equationally fully abstract with respect to the operational semantics under certain conditions

    Graph Traversals as Universal Constructions

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    We exploit a decomposition of graph traversals to give a novel characterization of depth-first and breadth-first traversals by means of universal constructions. Specifically, we introduce functors from two different categories of edge-ordered directed graphs into two different categories of transitively closed edge-ordered graphs; one defines the lexicographic depth-first traversal and the other the lexicographic breadth-first traversal. We show that each functor factors as a composition of universal constructions, and that the usual presentation of traversals as linear orders on vertices can be recovered with the addition of an inclusion functor. Finally, we raise the question of to what extent we can recover search algorithms from the categorical description of the traversal they compute

    Quantum Information Effects

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    We study the two dual quantum information effects to manipulate the amount of information in quantum computation: hiding and allocation. The resulting type-and-effect system is fully expressive for irreversible quantum computing, including measurement. We provide universal categorical constructions that semantically interpret this arrow metalanguage with choice, starting with any rig groupoid interpreting the reversible base language. Several properties of quantum measurement follow in general, and we translate quantum flow charts into our language. The semantic constructions turn the category of unitaries between Hilbert spaces into the category of completely positive trace-preserving maps, and they turn the category of bijections between finite sets into the category of functions with chosen garbage. Thus they capture the fundamental theorems of classical and quantum reversible computing of Toffoli and Stinespring.Comment: 32 pages, including 10 page appendi

    Bennett and Stinespring, Together at Last

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    We present a universal construction that relates reversible dynamics on open systems to arbitrary dynamics on closed systems: the well-pointed restriction affine completion of a monoidal restriction category. This categorical completion encompasses both quantum channels, via Stinespring dilation, and classical computing, via Bennett's method. Moreover, in these two cases, we show how our construction can be 'undone' by a further universal construction. This shows how both mixed quantum theory and classical computation rest on entirely reversible foundations.Comment: 15 pages, additional proofs in appendi

    Reversible Effects as Inverse Arrows

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    Reversible computing models settings in which all processes can be reversed. Applications include low-power computing, quantum computing, and robotics. It is unclear how to represent side-effects in this setting, because conventional methods need not respect reversibility. We model reversible effects by adapting Hughes' arrows to dagger arrows and inverse arrows. This captures several fundamental reversible effects, including serialization and mutable store computations. Whereas arrows are monoids in the category of profunctors, dagger arrows are involutive monoids in the category of profunctors, and inverse arrows satisfy certain additional properties. These semantics inform the design of functional reversible programs supporting side-effects.Comment: 15 pages; corrected Example 3.

    Tail recursion transformation for invertible functions

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    Tail recursive functions allow for a wider range of optimisations than general recursive functions. For this reason, much research has gone into the transformation and optimisation of this family of functions, in particular those written in continuation passing style (CPS). Though the CPS transformation, capable of transforming any recursive function to an equivalent tail recursive one, is deeply problematic in the context of reversible programming (as it relies on troublesome features such as higher-order functions), we argue that relaxing (local) reversibility to (global) invertibility drastically improves the situation. On this basis, we present an algorithm for tail recursion conversion specifically for invertible functions. The key insight is that functions introduced by program transformations that preserve invertibility, need only be invertible in the context in which the functions subject of transformation calls them. We show how a bespoke data type, corresponding to such a context, can be used to transform invertible recursive functions into a pair of tail recursive function acting on this context, in a way where calls are highlighted, and from which a tail recursive inverse can be straightforwardly extracted.Comment: Submitted to 15th Conference on Reversible Computation, 202

    Branching execution symmetry in Jeopardy by available implicit arguments analysis

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    When the inverse of an algorithm is well-defined – that is, when its output can be deterministically transformed into the input pro- ducing it – we say that the algorithm is invertible. While one can describe an invertible algorithm using a general-purpose programming language, it is generally not possible to guarantee that its inverse is well-defined without additional argument. Reversible languages enforce determinis- tic inverse interpretation at the cost of expressibility, by restricting the building blocks from which an algorithm may be constructed. Jeopardy is a functional programming language designed for writing in- vertible algorithms without the syntactic restrictions of reversible pro- gramming. In particular, Jeopardy allows the limited use of locally non- invertible operations, provided that they are used in a way that can be statically determined to be globally invertible. However, guaranteeing invertibility in Jeopardy is not obvious. One of the central problems in guaranteeing invertibility is that of de- ciding whether a program is symmetric in the face of branching control flow. In this paper, we show how Jeopardy can solve this problem, us- ing a program analysis called available implicit arguments analysis, to approximate branching symmetries
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