949 research outputs found


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    Special Volume(2000), Part III (Geometry and Topology


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    This paper, based on a longitudinal case study, explicates through what kinds of learning process the organizational ambidexterity is actually realized. We assume the two types of learning process called explorative learning and exploitative learning drawn from March’s original work and define the ambidexterity as the balance of two learning modes (March 1991). In March’s characterization, exploration involves search, variation, risk-taking, experimentation, play, flexibility, discovery and innovation, whereas exploitation can be defined as refinement, choice, production, efficiency, selection, implementation and execution. This characterization, however, is very ambiguous. To make the definition clearer, we add a dynamic capability view to the ambidexterity research. Teece (2007)’s dynamic capabilities view assumes the explorative learning route comprised of three micro-foundations (sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring). However, the linkage of three micro-foundations may break somewhere by the bias of organizational learning. For that reason, the existence of another learning mechanism, so-called exploitative learning is also drawig attention. Unfortunately, exploitative learning route also suffers from several breakdowns. As a result, every firms need the balancing efforts of exploitative learning and explorative learning as an organizational ambidexterity. We try to identify its concrete actualization process by opening the black box of an ambidexterity mechanism in real setting. We select special research setting, the foreign expansion case of a Japanese international retailer into Chinese market. Our research question is what kind of balancing process does the organizational ambidexterity actually follow? We look at how the two learning processes are activated and balanced, looking at either the combined or equalizing dimensions of ambidexterity construct. We also pay attention to what are the controllable antecedents that make it possible. In conclusion, the theoretical and practical implications are tentatively drawn from this study.Ovaj rad, temeljen na longitudinalnoj studiji slučaja, objašnjava kroz koje se vrste procesa učenja ostvaruje organizacijska ambidekstrija. Pretpostavljamo da su dvije vrste procesa učenja nazvane eksplorativno učenje i eksploatativno učenje koje su izvedene iz izvornog Marchovog rada i definiraju ambidekstriju kao ravnotežu dva načina učenja (March 1991.) Prema Marchu, eksplorativno učenje uključuje pretraživanje, varijacije, preuzimanja rizika, eksperimentiranje, igru, fleksibilnost, otkriće i inovacije, dok se eksploatacija može definirati kao pročišćavanje, izbor, proizvodnja, učinkovitost, odabir, implementacija i izvedba. Međutim, ta je karakterizacija vrlo neodređena. Da bi definicija bila jasnija, dodali smo prikaz dinamičkih sposobnosti istraživanju ambidekstrije. Pregled dinamičkih sposobnosti Teecea (2007) pretpostavlja put eksplorativnog učenja koji se sastoji od tri mikroosnove (opažanje, evaluacija tržišta i konkurenata, te rekonfiguracija). Međutim, veza tri mikroosnove može se negdje prekinuti zbog pristranosti organizacijskog učenja. Iz tog razloga pažnju privlači i postojanje drugog mehanizma učenja, tzv. eksploatativnog. Nažalost, eksploatacijski način učenja također se može prekinuti. Kao rezultat toga, tvrtke trebaju uravnotežiti eksploatativno učenje i eksplorativno učenje kao organizacijsku ambidekstriju. Pokušali smo identificirati njegov konkretni postupak aktualizacije razjašnjavajući mehanizam ambidekstrije u stvarnom okruženju. Istraživanje je rađeno na slučaju ekspanzije japanskog međunarodnog prodavača na kineskom tržištu. Naše je istraživačko pitanje kakav postupak uravnoteženja zapravo slijedi organizacijska ambidekstrija? Promatrali smo kako se aktiviraju i uravnotežuju dva procesa učenja, sagledavajući bilo kombinirane ili izjednačujuće dimenzije konstrukta ambidekstrije. Također smo uzeli u obzir čimbenike koji su prethodili, a koji to omogućuju. Zaključno, ova je studija rezultirala okvirnim teorijskim i praktičnim implikacijama

    A_k singularities of wave fronts

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    In this paper, we discuss the recognition problem for A_k-type singularities on wave fronts. We give computable and simple criteria of these singularities, which will play a fundamental role in generalizing the authors' previous work "the geometry of fronts" for surfaces. The crucial point to prove our criteria for A_k-singularities is to introduce a suitable parametrization of the singularities called the "k-th KRSUY-coordinates". Using them, we can directly construct a versal unfolding for a given singularity. As an application, we prove that a given nondegenerate singular point p on a real (resp. complex) hypersurface (as a wave front) in R^{n+1} (resp. C^{n+1}) is differentiably (resp. holomorphically) right-left equivalent to the A_{k+1}-type singular point if and only if the linear projection of the singular set around p into a generic hyperplane R^n (resp. C^n) is right-left equivalent to the A_k-type singular point in R^n (resp. C^{n}). Moreover, we show that the restriction of a C-infinity-map f:R^n --> R^n to its Morin singular set gives a wave front consisting of only A_k-type singularities. Furthermore, we shall give a relationship between the normal curvature map and the zig-zag numbers (the Maslov indices) of wave fronts.Comment: 15 pages, 2 figure

    Characterization of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus orf68 Gene That Encodes a Novel Structural Protein of Budded Virus

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    AbstractAll lepidopteran baculovirus genomes sequenced to date encode a homolog of the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf68 gene, suggesting that it performs an important role in the virus life cycle. In this article we describe the characterization of BmNPV orf68 gene. Northern and Western analyses demonstrated that orf68 gene was expressed as a late gene and encoded a structural protein of budded virus (BV). Immunohistochemical analysis by confocal microscopy showed that ORF68 protein was localized mainly in the nucleus of infected cells. To examine the function of orf68 gene, we constructed orf68 deletion mutant (BmD68) and characterized it in BmN cells and larvae of B. mori. BV production was delayed in BmD68-infected cells. The larval bioassays also demonstrated that deletion of orf68 did not reduce the infectivity, but mutant virus took 70 h longer to kill the host than wild-type BmNPV. In addition, dot-blot analysis showed viral DNA accumulated more slowly in mutant infected cells. Further examination suggested that BmD68 was less efficient in entry and budding from cells, although it seemed to possess normal attachment ability. These results suggest that ORF68 is a BV-associated protein involved in secondary infection from cell-to-cell

    Terbium-activated heavy scintillating glasses

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    Tb-activated scintillating glasses with high Ln2O3 (Ln=Gd, Y, Lu) concentration up to 40mol% have been prepared. The effects of Ln3+ ions on the density, thermal properties, transmission and luminescence properties under both UV and X-ray excitation have been investigated. The glasses containing Gd2O3 or Lu2O3 exhibit a high density of more than 6.0g/cm3. Energy transfer from Gd3+ to Tb3+ takes place in Gd-containing glass and as a result the Gd-containing glass shows a light yield 2.5 times higher than the Y-or Lu-containing glass. The Effect of the substitution of fluorine for oxygen on the optical properties was also investigated