4,823 research outputs found

    Gamow-Teller GT+ distributions in nuclei with mass A=90-97

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    We investigate the Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the electron-capture direction in nuclei having mass A=90-97, assuming a 88Sr core and using a realistic interaction that reasonably reproduces nuclear spectroscopy for a wide range of nuclei in the region as well as experimental data on Gamow-Teller strength distributions. We discuss the systematics of the distributions and their centroids. We also predict the strength distributions for several nuclei involving stable isotopes that should be experimentally accessible for one-particle exchange reactions in the near future.Comment: 9 pages, 10 figures (from 17 eps files), to be submitted to Phys.Rev.C; corrected typos, minor language change

    The Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky versus the Spherical Shell Model: A Comparative Study of pf-Shell Nuclei

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    A comparative study is performed of a deformed mean field theory, represented by the cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky (CNS) model, and the spherical shell model. Energy spectra, occupation numbers, B(E2)-values, and spectroscopic quadrupole moments in the light pf shell nuclei are calculated in the two models and compared. The result is also compared to available experimental data which are generally well described by the shell model. Although the Nilsson-Strutinsky calculation does not include pairing, both the subshell occupation numbers and quadrupole properties are found to be rather similar in the two models. It is also shown that ``unpaired'' shell model calculations produce very similar energies as the CNS at all spins. The role of the pairing energy in the description of backbending and signature splitting in odd-mass nuclei is also discussed.Comment: 14 pages, 20 figures, submitted to Phys.Rev.

    Improved estimate of electron capture rates on nuclei during stellar core collapse

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    Electron captures on nuclei play an important role in the dynamics of the collapsing core of a massive star that leads to a supernova explosion. Recent calculations of these capture rates were based on microscopic models which account for relevant degrees of freedom. Due to computational restrictions such calculations were limited to a modest number of nuclei, mainly in the mass range A=45-110. Recent supernova simulations show that this pool of nuclei, however, omits the very neutron-rich and heavy nuclei which dominate the nuclear composition during the last phase of the collapse before neutrino trapping. Assuming that the composition is given by Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium we present here electron capture rates for collapse conditions derived from individual rates for roughly 2700 individual nuclei. For those nuclei which dominate in the early stage of the collapse, the individual rates are derived within the framework of microscopic models, while for the nuclei which dominate at high densities we have derived the rates based on the Random Phase Approximation with a global parametrization of the single particle occupation numbers. In addition, we have improved previous rate evaluations by properly including screening corrections to the reaction rates into account.Comment: 32 pages, 13 figures, 1 table; elsart; to appear in Nuclear Physics

    Shape transition and oblate-prolate coexistence in N=Z fpg-shell nuclei

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    Nuclear shape transition and oblate-prolate coexistence in N=ZN=Z nuclei are investigated within the configuration space (2p3/22p_{3/2}, 1f5/21f_{5/2}, 2p1/22p_{1/2}, and 1g9/21g_{9/2}). We perform shell model calculations for 60^{60}Zn, 64^{64}Ge, and 68^{68}Se and constrained Hartree-Fock (CHF) calculations for 60^{60}Zn, 64^{64}Ge, 68^{68}Se, and 72^{72}Kr, employing an effective pairing plus quadrupole residual interaction with monopole interactions. The shell model calculations reproduce well the experimental energy levels of these nuclei. From the analysis of potential energy surface in the CHF calculations, we found shape transition from prolate to oblate deformation in these N=ZN=Z nuclei and oblate-prolate coexistence at 68^{68}Se. The ground state of 68^{68}Se has oblate shape, while the shape of 60^{60}Zn and 64^{64}Ge are prolate. It is shown that the isovector matrix elements between f5/2f_{5/2} and p1/2p_{1/2} orbits cause the oblate deformation for 68^{68}Se, and four-particle four-hole (4p4h4p-4h) excitations are important for the oblate configuration.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Effects of Inelastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering on Supernova Dynamics and Radiated Neutrino Spectra

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    Based on the shell model for Gamow-Teller and the Random Phase Approximation for forbidden transitions, we have calculated reaction rates for inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (INNS) under supernova (SN) conditions, assuming a matter composition given by Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium. The rates have been incorporated into state-of-the-art stellar core-collapse simulations with detailed energy-dependent neutrino transport. While no significant effect on the SN dynamics is observed, INNS increases the neutrino opacities noticeably and strongly reduces the high-energy tail of the neutrino spectrum emitted in the neutrino burst at shock breakout. Relatedly the expected event rates for the observation of such neutrinos by earthbound detectors are reduced by up to about 60%.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, 1 tabl