73 research outputs found

    Deep exploration of a CDKN1C mutation causing a mixture of Beckwith-Wiedemann and IMAGe syndromes revealed a novel transcript associated with developmental delay

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    Background: Loss-of-function mutations in CDKN1C cause overgrowth, that is, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), while gain-of-function variants in the gene’s PCNA binding motif cause a growth-restricted condition called IMAGe syndrome. We report on a boy with a remarkable mixture of both syndromes, with developmental delay and microcephaly as additional features. Methods: Whole-exome DNA sequencing and ultra-deep RNA sequencing of leucocyte-derived and fibroblast-derived mRNA were performed in the family. Results: We found a maternally inherited variant in the IMAGe hotspot region: NM_000076.2(CDKN1C) c.822_826delinsGAGCTG. The asymptomatic mother had inherited this variant from her mosaic father with mild BWS features. This delins caused tissue-specific frameshifting resulting in at least three novel mRNA transcripts in the boy. First, a splice product causing CDKN1C truncation was the likely cause of BWS. Second, an alternative splice product in fibroblasts encoded IMAGe-associated amino acid substitutions. Third, we speculate that developmental delay is caused by a change in the alternative CDKN1C-201 (ENST00000380725.1) transcript, encoding a novel isoform we call D (UniProtKB: A6NK88). Isoform D is distinguished from isoforms A and B by alternative splicing within exon 1 that changes the reading frame of the last coding exon. Remarkably, this delins changed the reading frame back to the isoform A/B type, resulting in a hybrid D–A/B isoform. Conclusion: Three different cell-type-dependent RNA products can explain the co-occurrence of both BWS and IMAGe features in the boy. Possibly, brain expression of hybrid isoform D–A/B is the cause of developmental delay and microcephaly, a phenotypic feature not previously reported in CDKN1C patients.publishedVersio

    References for ultrasound staging of breast maturation, tanner breast staging, pubic hair, and menarche in Norwegian girls

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    Context - Discriminating adipose and glandular tissue is challenging when clinically assessing breast development. Ultrasound facilitates staging of pubertal breast maturation (US B), but has not been systematically compared to Tanner breast (Tanner B) staging, and no normative data have been reported. Objective - To present normative references for US B along with references for Tanner B, pubic hair (PH), and menarche. Design, Setting, and Participants - A cross-sectional sample of 703 healthy girls aged 6 to 16 years were examined. Main Outcome Measures - Breast development was determined with US B and Tanner B staging. Tanner PH and menarcheal status were recorded. The age distributions of entry in US B, Tanner B, and PH stages and menarche were estimated with generalized linear and generalized additive models with a probit link. Method agreement was tested with weighted Cohen’s kappa. Results - The median (±2SD) ages for thelarche, US B2 and Tanner B2, were 10.2 (7.7, 12.8) and 10.4 (8.0, 12.7) years. The median (±2SD) ages at Tanner PH2 and menarche were 10.9 (8.5, 13.3) and 12.7 (11.0, 16.2) years. Cohen’s kappa of agreement (95% confidence interval) between US B and Tanner B was 0.87 (0.85–0.88). When the methods disagreed, US B was usually more advanced. Conclusion - Thelarche occurred at a slightly younger age when assessed with ultrasound compared to clinical Tanner staging, although the 2 methods had a very good agreement when determining pubertal breast maturation. A significant decrease of 2.8 months in age at menarche was observed during the past decade in Norwegian girls

    Growth in children conceived by ART

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    STUDY QUESTION Is the growth pattern of children conceived by ART different compared to naturally conceived children. SUMMARY ANSWER Both ART and underlying parental subfertility may contribute to differences in early childhood growth between children conceived with and without the use of ART. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Children conceived by ART weigh less and are shorter at the time of delivery. The extent to which differences in growth according to mode of conception persist during childhood, and the role of underlying parental subfertility, remains unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We conducted a prospective study population-based study. We studied 81 461 children participating in the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and 544 113 adolescents screened for military conscription. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Conception by ART as registered in the Medical Birth Registry. We compared maternally reported length/height and weight among children in MoBa from mid-pregnancy to age 7 according to mode of conception using mixed-effects linear regression. Differences in self-reported height and weight at 17 years of age at screening for military conscription were assessed with linear regression. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE At birth, children conceived by ART were shorter (boys −0.3 cm; 95% CI, −0.5 to −0.1), girls −0.4 cm; 95% CI, −0.5 to −0.3) and lighter (boys −113 grams; 95% CI, −201 to −25, girls −107 grams; 95% CI, −197 to −17). After birth, children conceived by ART grew more rapidly, achieving both greater height and weight at age 3. Children conceived by ART had a greater height up to age 7, but did not have a greater height or weight by age 17. Naturally conceived children of parents taking longer time to conceive had growth patterns similar to ART children. Children born after frozen embryo transfer had larger ultrasound measures and were longer and heavier the first 2 years than those born after fresh embryo transfer. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTIONS Selection bias could have been introduced due to the modest participation rate in the MoBa cohort. Our reliance on self-reported measures of length/height and weight could have introduced measurement error. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Our findings provide reassurance that offspring conceived by ART are not different in height, weight or BMI from naturally conceived once they reach adolescence.publishedVersio

    Maternal PCOS status and metformin in pregnancy: Steroid hormones in 5–10 years old children from the PregMet randomized controlled study

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    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, with potential effects on offspring both genetically and through altered intrauterine environment. Metformin, which ameliorate hormonal disturbances in non-pregnant women with PCOS is increasingly used in pregnancy. It passes the placenta, and the evidence on potential consequences for offspring endocrine development is scarce. We explore the potential effects of maternal PCOS status and intrauterine metformin exposure on offspring steroid hormone levels. Design: This is a follow-up study of 5–10 years old children from the PregMet-study–a randomized controlled trial comparing metformin (2000 mg/day) to placebo during PCOS pregnancies. Of the 255 children invited, 117 (46%) were included. Methods: There was no intervention in this follow-up study. Outcomes were serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, SHBG, cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol and calculated free testosterone converted to gender-and age adjusted z-scores from a Norwegian reference population. These were compared in i) placebo-exposed children versus children from the reference population (z-score zero) by the deviation in z-score by one-sample t-tests and ii) metformin versus placebo-exposed children by two-sample t-tests. Holm-Bonferroni adjustments were performed to account for multiple endpoints. Results: Girls of mothers with PCOS (n = 30) had higher mean z-scores of androstenedione (0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41 to 1.06), p<0.0001), testosterone (0.76 (0.51 to 1.00), p<0.0001), and free testosterone (0.99 (0.67 to 1.32), p<0.0001) than the reference population. Metformin-exposed boys (n = 31) tended to have higher 11-deoxycortisol z-score than placebo-exposed boys (n = 24) (mean difference 0.65 (95% CI 0.14–1.17), p = 0.014). Conclusion: Maternal PCOS status was associated with elevated androgens in 5- to 10-year-old daughters, which might indicate earlier maturation and increased risk of developing PCOS. An impact of metformin in pregnancy on steroidogenesis in children born to mothers with PCOS cannot be excluded. Our findings need confirmation in studies that include participants that have entered puberty.publishedVersio

    Levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in Norwegian children stratified by age and sex - Data from the Bergen Growth Study 2

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    Background and aim Due to the persistence, bioaccumulation and potential adverse health effects, there have been restrictions and phase out in the production of certain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) since the early 2000s. Published serum levels of PFAS during childhood are variable and may reflect the impact of age, sex, sampling year and exposure history. Surveying the concentrations of PFAS in children is vital to provide information regarding exposure during this critical time of development. The aim of the current study was therefore to evaluate serum concentrations of PFAS in Norwegian schoolchildren according to age and sex. Material and methods Serum samples from 1094 children (645 girls and 449 boys) aged 6–16 years, attending schools in Bergen, Norway, were analyzed for 19 PFAS. The samples were collected in 2016 as part of the Bergen Growth Study 2. Statistical analyses included Student t-test, one-way ANOVA and Spearman's correlation analysis of log-transformed data. Results Of the 19 PFAS examined, 11 were detected in the serum samples. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononaoic acid (PFNA) were present in all samples with geometric means of 2.67, 1.35, 0.47 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. In total, 203 children (19%) had PFAS levels above the safety limits set by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Significantly higher serum concentrations were found in boys compared to girls for PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS and perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS). Furthermore, serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFHpS were significantly higher in children under the age of 12 years than in older children. Conclusions PFAS exposure was widespread in the sample population of Norwegian children analyzed in this study. Approximately one out of five children had PFAS levels above safety limits, indicating a potential risk of negative health effects. The majority of the analyzed PFAS showed higher levels in boys than in girls and decreased serum concentrations with age, which may be explained by changes related to growth and maturation.publishedVersio

    Hormone references for ultrasound breast staging and endocrine profiling to detect female onset of puberty

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    Context - Application of ultrasound (US) to evaluate attainment and morphology of glandular tissue provides a new rationale for evaluating onset and progression of female puberty, but currently no hormone references complement this method. Furthermore, previous studies have not explored the predictive value of endocrine profiling to determine female puberty onset. Objective - To integrate US breast staging with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormone references and test the predictive value of an endocrine profile to determine thelarche. Design Setting and Participants - Cross-sectional sample of 601 healthy Norwegian girls, ages 6 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measures - Clinical and ultrasound breast evaluations were performed for all included girls. Blood samples were analyzed by immunoassay and ultrasensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) from the subpicomolar range. Results - References for E2, E1, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone–binding globulin were constructed in relation to chronological age, Tanner stages, and US breast stages. An endocrine profile index score derived from principal component analysis of these analytes was a better marker of puberty onset than age or any individual hormone, with receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve 0.91 (P < 0.001). Ultrasound detection of nonpalpable glandular tissue in 14 out of 264 (5.3%) girls with clinically prepubertal presentation was associated with significantly higher median serum levels of E2 (12.5 vs 4.9 pmol/L; P < 0.05) and a distinct endocrine profile (arbitrary units; P < 0.001). Conclusions - We provide the first hormone references for use with US breast staging and demonstrate the application of endocrine profiling to improve detection of female puberty onset

    Testicular ultrasound to stratify hormone references in a cross-sectional Norwegian study of male puberty

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    Context: Testicular growth represents the best clinical variable to evaluate male puberty, but current pediatric hormone references are based on chronological age and subjective assessments of discrete puberty development stages. Determination of testicular volume (TV) by ultrasound provides a novel approach to assess puberty progression and stratify hormone reference intervals. Objective: The objective of this article is to establish references for serum testosterone and key hormones of the male pituitary-gonadal signaling pathway in relation to TV determined by ultrasound. Design, Setting, and Participants: Blood samples from 414 healthy Norwegian boys between ages 6 and 16 years were included from the cross-sectional “Bergen Growth Study 2.” Participants underwent testicular ultrasound and clinical assessments, and serum samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem–mass spectrometry and immunoassays. Main Outcome Measures: We present references for circulating levels of total testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone–binding globulin in relation to TV, chronological age, and Tanner pubic hair stages. Results: In pubertal boys, TV accounted for more variance in serum testosterone levels than chronological age (Spearman r = 0.753, P < .001 vs r = 0.692, P < .001, respectively). Continuous centile references demonstrate the association between TV and hormone levels during puberty. Hormone reference intervals were stratified by TV during the pubertal transition. Conclusions: Objective ultrasound assessments of TV and stratification of hormone references increase the diagnostic value of traditional references based on chronological age or subjective staging of male puberty.acceptedVersio

    Long-Term Effectiveness and Safety of Childhood Growth Hormone Treatment in Noonan Syndrome

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    Introduction: Few data exist on long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with Noonan syndrome (NS). Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of GH treatment in NS in clinical practice. Methods: Height gain, near-adult height (NAH), and safety were assessed in 2 complementary non-interventional studies: NordiNet® IOS and ANSWER. The safety analysis included 412 patients, and the effectiveness analysis included 84 GH-treated patients (male, n = 67) with ≥4 years’ height standard deviation score (HSDS) data. HSDS was determined using national reference (NR) and NS-specific (NSS) data. Results: The mean (SD) baseline age was 8.38 (3.57) years; HSDS, −2.76 (1.03); GH dose, 41.6 (11.1) µg/kg/day. The mean (SD) HSDS increase from baseline (ΔHSDS) was 0.49 (0.37) (first year), 0.79 (0.58) (second year), and 1.01 (0.60) (third year) (NR). The mean (SD) HSDS at year 3 was −1.66 (1.00) (NR; 1.06 [1.12] [NSS]). Twenty-four patients achieved NAH. The mean (SD) NAH SDS (NR) was −1.51 (0.60) (154.90 [3.21] cm) in females and −1.79 (1.09) (165.61 [7.19] cm) in males; 70.8% (17/24) had NAH SDS ≥ −2. Adverse drug reactions and GH-unrelated serious adverse events (n = 34) were reported in 22/412 (5.3%) patients. Four neoplasms and 3 cases of scoliosis were reported; no cardiovascular adverse events occurred. Conclusions: GH-treated children with NS achieved substantial height gain during the first 3 years of follow-up. Overall, 24 patients achieved NAH, with 70.8% having NAH SDS ≥ –2. There was no evidence to support a higher prevalence of neoplasm, or cardiac or other comorbidities.publishedVersio

    Parental Perceptions of Children’s Weight Status in 22 Countries: The WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: COSI 2015/2017

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    Introduction: Parents can act as important agents of change and support for healthy childhood growth and development. Studies have found that parents may not be able to accurately perceive their child’s weight status. The purpose of this study was to measure parental perceptions of their child’s weight status and to identify predictors of potential parental misperceptions. Methods: We used data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative and 22 countries. Parents were asked to identify their perceptions of their children’s weight status as “underweight,” “normal weight,” “a little overweight,” or “extremely overweight.” We categorized children’s (6–9 years; n = 124,296) body mass index (BMI) as BMI-for-age Z-scores based on the 2007 WHO-recommended growth references. For each country included in the analysis and pooled estimates (country level), we calculated the distribution of children according to the WHO weight status classification, distribution by parental perception of child’s weight status, percentages of accurate, overestimating, or underestimating perceptions, misclassification levels, and predictors of parental misperceptions using a multilevel logistic regression analysis that included only children with overweight (including obesity). Statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 15 1. Results: Overall, 64.1% of parents categorized their child’s weight status accurately relative to the WHO growth charts. However, parents were more likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child had overweight (82.3%) or obesity (93.8%). Parents were more likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child was male (adjusted OR [adjOR]: 1.41; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.28–1.55); the parent had a lower educational level (adjOR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.26–1.57); the father was asked rather than the mother (adjOR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.98–1.33); and the family lived in a rural area (adjOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99–1.24). Overall, parents’ BMI was not strongly associated with the underestimation of children’s weight status, but there was a stronger association in some countries. Discussion/Conclusion: Our study supplements the current literature on factors that influence parental perceptions of their child’s weight status. Public health interventions aimed at promoting healthy childhood growth and development should consider parents’ knowledge and perceptions, as well as the sociocultural contexts in which children and families live.The authors gratefully acknowledge support from a grant from the Russian Government in the context of the WHO European Office for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. Data collection in the countries was made possible through funding by: Albania: World Health Organization through the Joint Programme on Children, Food Security and Nutrition “Reducing Malnutrition in Children,” funded by the Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund, and the Institute of Public Health; Bulgaria: Ministry of Health, National Center of Public Health and Analyses, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe; Croatia: Ministry of Health, Croatian Institute of Public Health and World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe; Czechia: Grants AZV MZČR 17-31670 A and MZČR – RVO EÚ 00023761; Denmark: Danish Ministry of Health; France: French Public Health Agency; Georgia: World Health Organization; Ireland: Health Service Executive; Italy: Ministry of Health; Istituto Superiore di sanità (National Institute of Health); Kazakhstan: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan and World Health Organization Country Office; Latvia: n/a; Lithuania: Science Foundation of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences and Lithuanian Science Council and World Health Organization; Malta: Ministry of Health; Montenegro: World Health Organization and Institute of Public Health of Montenegro; Poland: National Health Programme, Ministry of Health; Portugal: Ministry of Health Institutions, the National Institute of Health, Directorate General of Health, Regional Health Directorates and the kind technical support of Center for Studies and Research on Social Dynamics and Health (CEIDSS); Romania: Ministry of Health; Russia (Moscow): n/a; San Marino: Health Ministry; Educational Ministry; Social Security Institute; the Health Authority; Spain: Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition (AESAN); Tajikistan: World Health Organization Country Office in Tajikistan and Ministry of Health and Social Protection; and Turkmenistan: World Health Organization Country Office in Turkmenistan and Ministry of Health. The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this article and they do not necessarily represent the views, decisions, or policies of the institutions with which they are affiliated.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Life expectancy and disease burden in the Nordic countries : results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017

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    Background The Nordic countries have commonalities in gender equality, economy, welfare, and health care, but differ in culture and lifestyle, which might create country-wise health differences. This study compared life expectancy, disease burden, and risk factors in the Nordic region. Methods Life expectancy in years and age-standardised rates of overall, cause-specific, and risk factor-specific estimates of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were analysed in the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017. Data were extracted for Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden (ie, the Nordic countries), and Greenland, an autonomous area of Denmark. Estimates were compared with global, high-income region, and Nordic regional estimates, including Greenland. Findings All Nordic countries exceeded the global life expectancy; in 2017, the highest life expectancy was in Iceland among females (85.9 years [95% uncertainty interval [UI] 85.5-86.4] vs 75.6 years [75.3-75.9] globally) and Sweden among males (80.8 years [80.2-81.4] vs 70.5 years [70.1-70.8] globally). Females (82.7 years [81.9-83.4]) and males (78.8 years [78.1-79.5]) in Denmark and males in Finland (78.6 years [77.8-79.2]) had lower life expectancy than in the other Nordic countries. The lowest life expectancy in the Nordic region was in Greenland (females 77.2 years [76.2-78.0], males 70.8 years [70.3-71.4]). Overall disease burden was lower in the Nordic countries than globally, with the lowest age-standardised DALY rates among Swedish males (18 555.7 DALYs [95% UI 15 968.6-21 426.8] per 100 000 population vs 35 834.3 DALYs [33 218.2-38 740.7] globally) and Icelandic females (16 074.1 DALYs [13 216.4-19 240.8] vs 29 934.6 DALYs [26 981.9-33 211.2] globally). Greenland had substantially higher DALY rates (26 666.6 DALYs [23 478.4-30 218.8] among females, 33 101.3 DALYs [30 182.3-36 218.6] among males) than the Nordic countries. Country variation was primarily due to differences in causes that largely contributed to DALYs through mortality, such as ischaemic heart disease. These causes dominated male disease burden, whereas non-fatal causes such as low back pain were important for female disease burden. Smoking and metabolic risk factors were high-ranking risk factors across all countries. DALYs attributable to alcohol use and smoking were particularly high among the Danes, as was alcohol use among Finnish males. Interpretation Risk factor differences might drive differences in life expectancy and disease burden that merit attention also in high-income settings such as the Nordic countries. Special attention should be given to the high disease burden in Greenland. Copyright (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.Peer reviewe
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