164 research outputs found

    Utility of continuous wave doppler echocardiography in the noninvasive assessment of left ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

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    AbstractSubaortic obstruction is an important determinant of the clinical presentation of and therapeutic approach to patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Therefore, assessment of the presence and magnitude of the intraventricular pressure gradient is paramount in the clinical evaluation of these patients. To establish the utility of continuous wave Doppler echocardiography in a sessing the pressure gradient in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 28 patients representing the wide hemodynamic spectrum of this disease underwent simultaneous determination of the subaortic gradient by continuous wave Doppler ultrasound and cardiac calheterization.With use of the modified Bernoulli equation, the Doppler-estimated gradient showed a strong correlation with the maximal instantaneous pressure difference measured at catheterization, both under basal conditions (r = 0.93; p < 0.0001) and during provocative maneuvers (r = 0.89; p < 0.9001). In 26 of she 28 patients, all assessments of the subaortic gradient were in agreement within 15 mm Hg (average difference 5 ± 3 mm Hg). In the other two patients there were substantial differences between these measurements (under basal conditions in one patient and after provocation in another), although the Doppler technique predicted the presence of marked subaortic obstruction in each. In both patients the erroneous interpretation was due to superimposition of the mitral regurgitation signal on that of left ventricular outflow.Doppler waveforms from the left ventricular outflow tract showed variability in contour among different patients and in individual patients. Hence, continuous wave Doppler echocardiography is a useful noninvasive method for estimating the subaortic gradient in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, technical factors such as contamination of the outflow tract jet with that of mitral regurgitation and variability in waveform configuration may importantly influence such assessments of the subaortic gradient

    Effect of l-Arginine on Human Coronary Endothelium-Dependent and Physiologic Vasodilation

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    AbstractObjectives. We hypothesized that l-arginine would improve abnormal coronary vasodilation in response to physiologic stress in patients with atherosclerosis and its risk factors by reversing coronary endothelial dysfunction.Background. Studies have demonstrated that physiologic coronary vasodilation correlates with endothelial function and that l-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, improves the response to acetylcholine (Ach).Methods. Changes in coronary blood flow and epicardial diameter response to Ach, adenosine and cardiac pacing were measured in 32 patients with coronary atherosclerosis or its risk factors and in 7 patients without risk factors and normal coronary angiograms.Results. Intracoronary l-arginine did not alter baseline coronary vascular tone, but the epicardial and microvascular responses to Ach were enhanced (both p < 0.001). The improvement after l-arginine was greater in epicardial segments that initially constricted with Ach; similarly, l-arginine abolished microvascular constriction produced by higher doses of Ach. Thus, there was a negative correlation between the initial epicardial and vascular resistance responses to Ach and the magnitude of improvement with l-arginine (r = −0.55 and r = −0.50, respectively, p < 0.001). d-Arginine did not affect the responses to Ach, and adenosine responses were unchanged with l-arginine. Cardiac pacing-induced epicardial constriction was abolished by l-arginine, but microvascular dilation remained unaffected.Conclusions. Thus, l-arginine improved endothelium-dependent coronary epicardial and microvascular function in patients with endothelial dysfunction. Prevention of epicardial constriction during physiologic stress by l-arginine in patients with endothelial dysfunction may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of myocardial ischemia

    Coronary-Artery Bypass Surgery in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

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    BACKGROUND: The survival benefit of a strategy of coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) added to guideline-directed medical therapy, as compared with medical therapy alone, in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure, and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction remains unclear. METHODS: From July 2002 to May 2007, a total of 1212 patients with an ejection fraction of 35% or less and coronary artery disease amenable to CABG were randomly assigned to undergo CABG plus medical therapy (CABG group, 610 patients) or medical therapy alone (medical-therapy group, 602 patients). The primary outcome was death from any cause. Major secondary outcomes included death from cardiovascular causes and death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. The median duration of follow-up, including the current extended-follow-up study, was 9.8 years. RESULTS: A primary outcome event occurred in 359 patients (58.9%) in the CABG group and in 398 patients (66.1%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio with CABG vs. medical therapy, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.97; P=0.02 by log-rank test). A total of 247 patients (40.5%) in the CABG group and 297 patients (49.3%) in the medical-therapy group died from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.93; P=0.006 by log-rank test). Death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes occurred in 467 patients (76.6%) in the CABG group and in 524 patients (87.0%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.82; P CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, the rates of death from any cause, death from cardiovascular causes, and death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes were significantly lower over 10 years among patients who underwent CABG in addition to receiving medical therapy than among those who received medical therapy alone. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; STICH [and STICHES] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.)

    Variability in Ejection Fraction Measured By Echocardiography, Gated Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography, and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Left Ventricular Dysfunction

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    Importance: Clinical decisions are frequently based on measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Limited information exists regarding inconsistencies in LVEF measurements when determined by various imaging modalities and the potential impact of such variability. Objective: To determine the intermodality variability of LVEF measured by echocardiography, gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Design, Setting, and Participants: International multicenter diagnostic study with LVEF imaging performed at 127 clinical sites in 26 countries from July 24, 2002, to May 5, 2007, and measured by core laboratories. Secondary study of clinical diagnostic measurements of LVEF in the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH), a randomized trial to identify the optimal treatment strategy for patients with LVEF of 35% or less and coronary artery disease. Data analysis was conducted from March 19, 2016, to May 29, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: At baseline, most patients had an echocardiogram and subsets of patients underwent SPECT and/or CMR. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured by a core laboratory for each modality independent of the results of other modalities, and measurements were compared among imaging methods using correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and coverage probability methods. Association of LVEF by each method and death was assessed. Results: A total of 2032 patients (mean [SD] age, 60.9 [9.6] years; 1759 [86.6%] male) with baseline LVEF data were included. Correlation of LVEF between modalities was r = 0.601 (for biplane echocardiography and SPECT [n = 385]), r = 0.493 (for biplane echocardiography and CMR [n = 204]), and r = 0.660 (for CMR and SPECT [n = 134]). Bland-Altman plots showed only moderate agreement in LVEF measurements from all 3 core laboratories with no substantial overestimation or underestimation of LVEF by any modality. The percentage of observations that fell within a range of 5% ranged from 43% to 54% between different imaging modalities. Conclusions and Relevance: In this international multicenter study of patients with coronary artery disease and reduced LVEF, there was substantial variation between modalities in LVEF determination by core laboratories. This variability should be considered in clinical management and trial design. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00023595

    Coronary-artery bypass surgery in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy

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    BACKGROUND The survival benefit of a strategy of coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) added to guideline-directed medical therapy, as compared with medical therapy alone, in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure, and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction remains unclear. METHODS From July 2002 to May 2007, a total of 1212 patients with an ejection fraction of 35% or less and coronary artery disease amenable to CABG were randomly assigned to undergo CABG plus medical therapy (CABG group, 610 patients) or medical therapy alone (medical-therapy group, 602 patients). The primary outcome was death from any cause. Major secondary outcomes included death from cardiovascular causes and death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. The median duration of follow-up, including the current extended-follow-up study, was 9.8 years. RESULTS A primary outcome event occurred in 359 patients (58.9%) in the CABG group and in 398 patients (66.1%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio with CABG vs. medical therapy, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.97; P=0.02 by log-rank test). A total of 247 patients (40.5%) in the CABG group and 297 patients (49.3%) in the medical-therapy group died from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.93; P=0.006 by log-rank test). Death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes occurred in 467 patients (76.6%) in the CABG group and in 524 patients (87.0%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.82; P&lt;0.001 by log-rank test). CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, the rates of death from any cause, death from cardiovascular causes, and death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes were significantly lower over 10 years among patients who underwent CABG in addition to receiving medical therapy than among those who received medical therapy alone. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; STICH [and STICHES] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.

    Markers of Inflammation, Metabolic Risk Factors, and Incident Heart Failure in American Indians: The Strong Heart Study

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    Inflammation may play a role in increased risk of heart failure (HF) that is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and diabetes. This study investigated associations between inflammatory markers, MS, and incident HF in a population with high prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and MS. The cohort consisted of 3098 American Indians, without prevalent cardiovascular disease who had C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen measured at the SHS Phase II exam. Independent associations between inflammatory markers, MS, and HF were analyzed by Cox hazard models. During mean follow-up of 11 years, 218 participants developed HF. After the adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, fibrinogen, (HR 1.36, 95% C.I.:1.15–1.59) but not CRP, (HR 1.25, 95% C.I.:0.97–1.32) remained significant HF predictor. In individuals without diabetes, concomitant presence of MS and elevated CRP or fibrinogen increased HF risk (for MS and CRP: HR 2.02, 95% C.I.: 0.95–4.31; for CRP and fibrinogen: HR 1.75, 95% C.I.:0.83–3.72). In a population with high prevalence of obesity, MS, and diabetes, elevated CRP and fibrinogen predict increased HF risk. These associations are attenuated by the adjustments for conventional risk factors suggesting that inflammation acts in concert with metabolic and clinical risk factors in increasing HF risk
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