127 research outputs found

    The Effects of Employment Conditions on Smoking Status and Smoking Intensity: The Analysis of Korean Labor & Income Panel 8th–10th Wave

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    Background: The neoliberal policies and its socioeconomic consequences in Korea have made employment conditions insecure and affected employees' health as well. Methods and Findings: To examine the association between employment condition and smoking status, we selected male respondents aged 20–59 that participated in all of the 8th–10th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS) which is a nationally representative data. Precarious working was significantly associated with smoking compared to standard working even after adjusting for socioeconomic indicators and self rated health status. After controlling for overall life satisfaction, the odds ratio of smoking among precarious workers decreased, but it was still marginally significant (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 0.99 to 2.07). A relation between precarious working and heavy smoking was also significant. Precarious working was associated with a decreased likelihood of quitting smoking, while it was not significant any more after adjusting for overall satisfaction on life. Precarious work was also related to a higher likelihood of relapse among former smokers, but was not significant after adjusting for other confounders. Conclusions: Precarious workers were more likely to be smokers and heavy smokers than standard workers. Unemployment is also a significant risk factor for decreased quitting and smoking relapse. However, insecure employment was an even more consistent determinant of current smoking behavior than unemployment

    Study design for the 2016 baseline survey of a health system strengthening project in Quoc Oai District, Hanoi, Vietnam

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    Background: In order to provide essential scientific evidence on the population's health status and social health determinants as well as the current capacity of the health care system in Vietnam to health policy makers and managers, Vietnam Ministry of Health, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, and Ho Chi Minh University of Medicine and Pharmacy collaborated with Seoul National University (Korea) and conducted a health system survey in the Quoc Oai district (of Hanoi capital) that represented northern rural Vietnam. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional study. The survey covered different topics (more than 200 questions) and was administered in three separate questionnaires: 1) Basic information of all household members; 2) Household characteristics; and 3) Individual characteristics. Socio-demographic characteristics among the households and individuals were collected from 2,400 households sampled by multi-stage cluster sampling method: more than 200 questions. Results: The household size of Quoc Oai was larger than the national average and there was no significant difference in gender composition. In addition, the proportions of pre-elderly, age 55-64, and elderly group (65 years old and over) were higher than the national population statistics. In this context, demographic transition has begun in Quoc Oai. Conclusion: This study design description provides the basic information about a baseline survey of a future prospective cohort (as a part of a collaborative project on strengthening the health system in Vietnam) to the prospective data user of this survey. © 2019 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences. **Please note that there are multiple authors for this article therefore only the name of the first 5 including Federation University Australia affiliate “Huy Nguyen” is provided in this record*

    Excess mortality during the Coronavirus disease pandemic in Korea

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    Background Although the ongoing epidemics of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have affected the mortality trend of the nation, the national level assessment of excess mortality (changes in overall mortality in the entire population) is still scarce in Korea. Therefore, this study evaluated the excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea using the certified mortality data. Methods Monthly mortality and population data from January 2013 to June 2022 was obtained from the National Health Insurance Service database and Statistics Korea. A quasi-Poisson interrupted time-series model adjusted for age structure, population, seasonality, and long-term trends was used to estimate the counterfactual projections (expected) of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020 to June 2022). The absolute difference (observed—expected) and ratio (observed / expected) of mortality were calculated. Stratified analysis based on pandemic years (years 2020, 2021, and 2022), sex, and age groups (aged 0–4, 5–19, 20–64, and ≥ 65 years) were conducted. Results An 8.7% increase in mortality was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic [absolute difference: 61,277 persons; ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.087 (1.066, 1.107)]. The gap between observed and estimated mortality became wider with continuation of the pandemic [ratio (95% CI), year 2020: 1.021 (1.003, 1.040); year 2021: 1.060 (1.039, 1.080), year 2022: 1.244 (1.219, 1.270)]. Although excess mortality across sex was similar, the adult [aged 20–64, ratio (95% CI): 1.059 (1.043, 1.076)] and elderly [aged 65-, ratio (95% CI): 1.098 (1.062, 1.135)] population showed increased excess mortality during the pandemic. Conclusions Despite Korea's successful quarantine policy response, the continued epidemic has led to an excess mortality. The estimated mortality exceeded the number of deaths from COVID-19 infection. Excess mortality should be monitored to estimate the overall impact of the pandemic on a nation.This research was supported by the research fund of Chungnam National University. The funding source had no role in the study design, collection, analysis, interpretation of data, writing of the report, or the decision to submit for publicatio

    Social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of economic crisis (1993–2010) in Korea

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    Backgrounds: This study examines social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of the Korean economic crisis (1993–2010) among Korean adults aged 40 and over. Methods: Data from the census and the national death file from the Statistics Korea are employed to calculate life expectancy and age-specific-death-rates (ASDR) by age, gender, and educational attainment for five years: 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Absolute and relative differences in life expectancy and Age-Specific Death Rates by educational attainment were utilized as proxy measures of social inequality. Results: Clear educational gradient of life expectancy was observed at age 40 by both sexes and across five time periods (1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The gradient became notably worse in females between 1993 and 2010 compared to the trend in males. The educational gradient was also found for ASDR in all five years, but it was more pronounced in working age groups (40s and 50s) than in elderly groups. The relative disadvantage of ASDR among working age Korean adults, both males and females, became substantially worse over time. Conclusions: Social inequalities in life expectancy and ASDR of the working age group across socioeconomic status over time were closely related to the widening of the social difference created by the macroeconomic crisis and the expansion of neo-liberalism in Korea

    Early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners among Vietnamese women : analysis from the multiple indicator cluster survey, 2011

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    Introduction: Under current HIV transmission mechanisms operating in Vietnam, women are seen as victims of their male partners. Having multiple sexual partners is one of the well-known risk factors for HIV infection. However, little is known about women's risky sexual behaviour and their vulnerability to HIV in Vietnam. This study aims to explore association between early sexual initiation and the number of lifetime sexual partners in Vietnamese women. Although the Vietnamese culture is socially conservative in this area, identifying women's risky sexual behaviour is important for the protection of women at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Design: A total of 8,791 women, who reported having had sexual intercourse, were included in this analysis of data from the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Vietnam. Data were collected using two-stage strata sampling, first at the national level and second across six geographical regions (n=8,791). Multivariable logistic regressions describe association between early initiation of a sexual activity and lifetime multiple sexual partners. Results: Early sexual intercourse was significantly associated with having lifetime multiple sexual partners. Women who were aged 19 or younger at first sexual intercourse were over five times more likely to have multiple sexual partners, compared with women whose first sexual intercourse was after marriage; aged 10-14 years (OR=5.9; 95% CI=1.9-18.8) at first intercourse; and aged 15-19 years (OR=5.4; 95% CI=4.0-7.2) at first intercourse. There was significant association with having multiple sexual partners for women of lower household wealth and urban residence, but the association with educational attainment was not strong. Conclusions: The study results call for health and education policies to encourage the postponement of early sexual activity in young Vietnamese women as protection against risky sexual behaviour later in life. © 2016 Dinh Thai Son et al. **Please note that there are multiple authors for this article therefore only the name of the first 5 including Federation University Australia affiliate “Nguyen Van Huy” is provided in this record*

    Moving toward Universal Coverage of Health Insurance in Vietnam: Barriers, Facilitating Factors, and Lessons from Korea

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    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.OAIID:oai:osos.snu.ac.kr:snu2014-01/102/0000034222/1SEQ:1PERF_CD:SNU2014-01EVAL_ITEM_CD:102USER_ID:0000034222ADJUST_YN:NEMP_ID:A079471DEPT_CD:801CITE_RATE:1.249DEPT_NM:의학과SCOPUS_YN:YCONFIRM: