1,152 research outputs found

    An Sp1/KLF binding site is important for the activity of a Polycomb group response element from the Drosophila engrailed gene

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    Polycomb-group response elements (PREs) are DNA elements through which the Polycomb-group (PcG) of transcriptional repressors act. Many of the PcG proteins are associated with two protein complexes that repress gene expression by modifying chromatin. Both of these protein complexes specifically associate with PREs in vivo, however, it is not known how they are recruited or held at the PRE. PREs are complex elements, made up of binding sites for many proteins. Our laboratory has been working to define all the sequences and DNA binding proteins required for the activity of a 181 bp PRE from the Drosophila engrailed gene. Here we show that one of the sites necessary for PRE activity, Site 2, can be bound by members of the Sp1/KLF family of zinc finger proteins. There are 10 Sp1/KLF family members in Drosophila, and nine of them bind to Site 2. We derive a consensus binding site for the Sp1/KLF Drosophila family members and show that this consensus sequence is present in most of the molecularly characterized PREs. These data suggest that one or more Sp1/KLF family members play a role in PRE function in Drosophila

    Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus draft genome sequence, annotation, and preliminary characterization of pathogenicity determinants

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    Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus is recognized as a pathogen of commercially-relevant Chlorella species. Algal infection and total loss of productivity (biomass) often occurs when susceptible algal hosts are cultivated in outdoor open pond systems. The pathogenic life cycle of this bacterium has been inferred from laboratory and field observations, and corroborated in part by the genomic analyses for two Arizona isolates recovered from an open algal reactor. V. chlorellavorus predation has been reported to occur in geographically- and environmentally-diverse conditions. Genomic analyses of these and additional field isolates is expected to reveal new information about the extent of ecological diversity and genes involved in host-pathogen interactions. The draft genome sequences for two isolates of the predatory V. chlorellavorus (Cyanobacteria; Ca. Melainabacteria) from an outdoor cultivation system located in the Arizona Sonoran Desert were assembled and annotated. The genomes were sequenced and analyzed to identify genes (proteins) with predicted involvement in predation, infection, and cell death of Chlorella host species prioritized for biofuel production at sites identified as highly suitable for algal production in the southwestern USA. Genomic analyses identified several predicted genes encoding secreted proteins that are potentially involved in pathogenicity, and at least three apparently complete sets of virulence (Vir) genes, characteristic of the VirB-VirD type system encoding the canonical VirB1-11 and VirD4 proteins, respectively. Additional protein functions were predicted suggesting their involvement in quorum sensing and motility. The genomes of two previously uncharacterized V. chlorellavorus isolates reveal nucleotide and protein level divergence between each other, and a previously sequenced V. chlorellavorus genome. This new knowledge will enhance the fundamental understanding of trans-kingdom interactions between a unique cosmopolitan cyanobacterial pathogen and its green microalgal host, of broad interest as a source of harvestable biomass for biofuels or bioproducts.Bioenergy Technology Office within the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [NL0029949 (WBS]; US Department of Energy [DE-EE0006269]Open access articleThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at [email protected]

    Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) genome project: analysis of sequenced clones from egg, instar, and adult (viruliferous and non-viruliferous) cDNA libraries

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    BACKGROUND: The past three decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in interest in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, owing to its nature as a taxonomically cryptic species, the damage it causes to a large number of herbaceous plants because of its specialized feeding in the phloem, and to its ability to serve as a vector of plant viruses. Among the most important plant viruses to be transmitted by B. tabaci are those in the genus Begomovirus (family, Geminiviridae). Surprisingly, little is known about the genome of this whitefly. The haploid genome size for male B. tabaci has been estimated to be approximately one billion bp by flow cytometry analysis, about five times the size of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The genes involved in whitefly development, in host range plasticity, and in begomovirus vector specificity and competency, are unknown. RESULTS: To address this general shortage of genomic sequence information, we have constructed three cDNA libraries from non-viruliferous whiteflies (eggs, immature instars, and adults) and two from adult insects that fed on tomato plants infected by two geminiviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV). In total, the sequence of 18,976 clones was determined. After quality control, and removal of 5,542 clones of mitochondrial origin 9,110 sequences remained which included 3,843 singletons and 1,017 contigs. Comparisons with public databases indicated that the libraries contained genes involved in cellular and developmental processes. In addition, approximately 1,000 bases aligned with the genome of the B. tabaci endosymbiotic bacterium Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, originating primarily from the egg and instar libraries. Apart from the mitochondrial sequences, the longest and most abundant sequence encodes vitellogenin, which originated from whitefly adult libraries, indicating that much of the gene expression in this insect is directed toward the production of eggs. CONCLUSION: This is the first functional genomics project involving a hemipteran (Homopteran) insect from the subtropics/tropics. The B. tabaci sequence database now provides an important tool to initiate identification of whitefly genes involved in development, behaviour, and B. tabaci-mediated begomovirus transmission

    Patients’ narratives of surgical site infection: implications for practice

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    Background Exploring patients' experiences has been used widely within healthcare to improve clinical service delivery. To date there has been minimal patient input of this kind into aspects of surgical site infection (SSI), such as surveillance or prevention interventions. Aim To obtain information from patients' experiences of SSIs to improve clinical practice. Methods Narrative interviews with 17 patients with SSIs (four deep, 12 organ space and one superficial) from three hospitals in England were conducted followed by thematic content analysis. Results Patients lacked overall awareness, concern and understanding of SSIs. Seven patients did not know that they had SSIs and, judging from patients' accounts, staff may have contributed to the lack of awareness by not informing patients of SSIs or downplaying their existence. The use of primary care resources was considerable and six of the patients were absent from work for two to four months. Conclusions SSIs have a low profile among patients which, if it were raised, could increase compliance with preventive interventions. This study confirms the appropriateness of using patient self-assessment post-discharge surveillance questionnaires to identify SSI symptoms, and highlights the need to identify total costings including to primary care, patients and the economy

    Expression of Integrin-αE by Mucosal Mast Cells in the Intestinal Epithelium and Its Absence in Nematode-Infected Mice Lacking the Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Activating Integrin αvβ6

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    Peak intestinal mucosal mast cell (MMC) recruitment coincides with expulsion of Trichinella spiralis, at a time when the majority of the MMCs are located within the epithelium in BALB/c mice. Although expression of integrin-α(E)β(7) by MMCs has not been formally demonstrated, it has been proposed as a potential mechanism to account for the predominantly intraepithelial location of MMCs during nematode infection. Co-expression of integrin-α(E)β(7) and the MMC chymase mouse mast cell protease-1, by mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells, is strictly regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(1). However, TGF-β(1) is secreted as part of a latent complex in vivo and subsequent extracellular modification is required to render it biologically active. We now show, for the first time, that intraepithelial MMCs express integrin-α(E)β(7) in Trichinella-infected BALB/c and S129 mice. In S129 mice that lack the gene for the integrin-β(6) subunit and, as consequence, do not express the epithelial integrin-α(v)β(6), integrin-α(E) expression is virtually abolished and recruitment of MMCs into the intestinal epithelium is dramatically reduced despite significant overall augmentation of the MMC population. Because a major function of integrin-α(v)β(6) is to activate latent TGF-β(1,) these findings strongly support a role for TGF-β(1) in both the recruitment and differentiation of murine MMCs during nematode infection

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45602/1/11199_2004_Article_BF00289693.pd

    The Grizzly, September 23, 1983

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    Security Measures Enacted • Rape Suspect Arrested • Union Welcomes Director • President\u27s Corner • Letters to the Editor • What to do With Your First $10,000 • Art Exhibit Opens • French Professor Earns Doctorate • Bloodmobile is Back • The New Invasion • Some People Never Give Up • Math, Science Teachers Needed • Ursinus Welcomes New Faculty • Calling All Diabetics: Wanna be a Guinea Pig? • New Look Bears Score Grid Upset • Field Hockey Off to Fine Start • Seniors Anchor U.C. Soccer • Sports Profilehttps://digitalcommons.ursinus.edu/grizzlynews/1101/thumbnail.jp