22,461 research outputs found

    The Risky Business of Binge Drinking Among College Students: Using Risk Models for PSAs and Anti-Drinking Campaigns

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    To assist creators of public service announcements and anti-drinking campaigns, this study provides an in-depth examination of the risks of binge drinking from the perspective of college students. Using current risk models for guidance, key elements from the qualitative data in the study are addressed, including perceived risks and their severity, vulnerability to risks, self-efficacy, response efficacy, benefits from ritual functions, and other costs or benefits based on students\u27 attitudes and beliefs. An integrated risk perception model is introduced. Student participants enumerated extensive risks; however, they generally felt invulnerable to the consequences. Most adopted a management style of “taking chances” when binge drinking because they perceived a built-in safety net in the college environment. Three ritual functions and various attitudes and beliefs help explain why a cost and benefit analysis favors binge drinking. Recommendations are given

    Crossroads for Federal Enforcement of the Clean Air Act

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    A major goal of the Clean Air Act 1 (hereinafter CAA or Act ) is to protect and enhance the quality of the Nation\u27s air resources. 2 The Act uses a two tiered approach to accomplish this goal. First, the Act focuses on the national attainment and maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants, 3 and second, the Act also sets specific standards for known hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) 4 . The Act emphasizes throughout its text that air quality problems are national in scope and often cross state boundaries. 5 Congress clearly intended that enforcement of programs to improve air quality be a cooperative effort of state and federal governments. 6 Courts also have recognized for decades the necessity of a federal enforcement presence in the effort to improve air quality nationally. As the D.C. Circuit Court noted, EPA ... is the ultimate supervisor, responsible for approving state plans and for stepping in, should a state fail to develop or to enforce an acceptable plan... EPA is to ensure national uniformity where needed, for example, to ensure that states do not compete unfairly for industry by offering air quality standards that are too lax to bring about needed improvement in the air we breathe. 7 An important component of many federal environmental laws is federal enforceability. The federal enforceability 8 of state air quality limitations or controls on sources requires that the Administrator of the EPA, not solely state or local authorities, enforce emission ..

    Investigating the Consistency of Stellar Evolution Models with Globular Cluster Observations via the Red Giant Branch Bump

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    Synthetic RGBB magnitudes are generated with the most recent theoretical stellar evolution models computed with the Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program (DSEP) code. They are compared to the observational work of Nataf et al., who present RGBB magnitudes for 72 globular clusters. A DSEP model using a chemical composition with enhanced α\alpha capture [α\alpha/Fe] =+0.4 =+0.4 and an age of 13 Gyr shows agreement with observations over metallicities ranging from [Fe/H] = 00 to [Fe/H] 1.5\approx-1.5, with discrepancy emerging at lower metallicities.Comment: 11 pages, 12 figure

    Baryogenesis from `electrogenesis' in a scalar field dominated epoch

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    Scalar fields can play a dominant role in the dynamics of the Universe until shortly before nucleosynthesis. Examples are provided by domination by a kinetic mode of a scalar field, which may be both the inflaton and the late time `quintessence', and also by more conventional models of reheating. The resultant modification to the pre-nucleosynthesis expansion rate can allow solely an asymmetry in right handed electrons to produce a net baryon asymmetry when reprocessed by the anomalous B+L violating processes of the standard model. The production of such a source asymmetry - what we term `electrogenesis' - requires no additional B or L violation beyond that in the standard model. We consider a specific model for its generation, by a simple perturbative out of equilibrium decay of Higgs like scalar fields with CP-violating Yukawa couplings to the standard model leptons. We show that, because of the much enhanced expansion rate, such a mechanism can easily produce an adequate asymmetry from scalars with masses as low as 1 TeV. Kinetic mode domination is strongly favoured because it evades large entropy release which dilutes the asymmetry. We also discuss briefly the effect of the abelian hypercharge anomaly.Comment: 25 pages, 2 figure

    Service Learning Across the Curriculum: A Collaboration to Promote Smoking Cessation

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    This paper focuses on how pedagogy, service, and scholarship can be combined across the advertising curriculum through service learning, which invigorates collaboration among faculty members, student teams, and advertising professionals. The authors demonstrate how service learning projects integrate curricula using a community-based client, ultimately leading to scholarship and professional outcomes. Specifically, this study analyzes the launch of a service learning-based smoking cessation campaign on a Midwest college campus

    Supersymmetry of Noncompact MQCD-like Membrane Instantons and Heat Kernel Asymptotics

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    We perform a heat kernel asymptotics analysis of the nonperturbative superpotential obtained from wrapping of an M2-brane around a supersymmetric noncompact three-fold embedded in a (noncompact) G_2-manifold as obtained in [1], the three-fold being the one relevant to domain walls in Witten's MQCD [2], in the limit of small "zeta", a complex constant that appears in the Riemann surfaces relevant to defining the boundary conditions for the domain wall in MQCD. The MQCD-like configuration is interpretable, for small but non-zero zeta as a noncompact/"large" open membrane instanton, and for vanishing zeta, as the type IIA D0-brane (for vanishing M-theory cicle radius). We find that the eta-function Seeley de-Witt coefficients vanish, and we get a perfect match between the zeta-function Seeley de-Witt coefficients (up to terms quadratic in zeta) between the Dirac-type operator and one of the two Laplace-type operators figuring in the superpotential. This is an extremely strong signature of residual supersymmetry for the nonperturbative configurations in M-theory considered in this work.Comment: 21 pages, LaTeX; v3: several clarifying remarks added, to appear in JHE

    Regulating Sin Across Cultures

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    Using text analysis, this study compares the alcohol advertising strategy in Ukraine and the United States within the context of regulatory, historical, cultural, and economic factors. Results showed that Ukrainian magazine ads contained a larger number of violations than the American ads, which complied with the letter of the law, if not the spirit. The message strategies also told different cultural stories that reflect the different ideologies for the two countries, which means that specialized advertising approaches are needed for each country. American ads situate alcohol as part of normal life, whereas Ukrainian ads demonstrate conspicuous consumption and celebrate the change to a market economy. They must not only sell the product but also teach Ukrainians how to be part of the consumer culture

    Selling Sin in a Hostile Environment: A Comparison of Ukrainian and American Tobacco Advertising Strategies in Magazines

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    Given that “sin” products must navigate different regulatory environments, it is important to compare cigarette advertising across cultures. Using text analysis, this study examined the message strategies and the ideological beliefs in cigarette advertising in American and Ukrainian magazines within the context of their different regulatory environments. The messages across the two countries differed in their use of creative appeals to ego, social needs, and sensory pleasure as well as their adherence to regulation. Many of the Ukrainian campaigns were reminiscent of earlier American campaigns and offer unique comparisons of cultures that are at different places historically, economically, and ideologically

    Advertising and Culture: Variations on the Theme of Individualism in Korean and American Magazine Advertising

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    Social scientists regard the U.S. and the Republic of Korea as countries with opposing cultural values. Given this contrast, the advertising of each culture is expected to differ. An examination of magazine advertising indicates that American ads strongly express the individualistic culture; however, the Korean ads not only express collectivistic ideas but individualistic ones as well. Although this phenomenon is not entirely surprising given the strength of Western influence, Korean individualistic messages are different from American individualistic messages. This suggests that expressions of individualism in ads blend with the elements of each culture to produce uniquely different messages .