1,089 research outputs found

    Short exposure to photo-oxidative damage triggers molecular signals indicative of early retinal degeneration

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    IntroductionAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, currently affecting over 350 billion people globally. For the most prevalent late-stage form of this disease, atrophic AMD, there are no available prevention strategies or treatments, in part due to inherent difficulties in early-stage diagnosis. Photo-oxidative damage is a well-established model for studying inflammatory and cell death features that occur in late-stage atrophic AMD, however to date has not been investigated as a potential model for studying early features of disease onset. Therefore, in this study we aimed to determine if short exposure to photo-oxidative damage could be used to induce early retinal molecular changes and advance this as a potential model for studying early-stage AMD.MethodsC57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24h photo-oxidative damage (PD) using 100k lux bright white light. Mice were compared to dim-reared (DR) healthy controls as well as mice which had undergone long periods of photo-oxidative damage (3d and 5d-PD) as known timepoints for inducing late-stage retinal degeneration pathologies. Cell death and retinal inflammation were measured using immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. To identify retinal molecular changes, retinal lysates were sent for RNA sequencing, following which bioinformatics analyses including differential expression and pathway analyses were performed. Finally, to investigate modulations in gene regulation as a consequence of degeneration, microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns were quantified using qRT-PCR and visualized using in situ hybridization.ResultsShort exposure to photo-oxidative damage (1-24h-PD) induced early molecular changes in the retina, with progressive downregulation of homeostatic pathways including metabolism, transport and phototransduction observed across this time-course. Inflammatory pathway upregulation was observed from 3h-PD, preceding observable levels of microglia/macrophage activation which was noted from 6h-PD, as well as significant photoreceptor row loss from 24h-PD. Further rapid and dynamic movement of inflammatory regulator miRNA, miR-124-3p and miR-155-5p, was visualized in the retina in response to degeneration.ConclusionThese results support the use of short exposure to photo-oxidative damage as a model of early AMD and suggest that early inflammatory changes in the retina may contribute to pathological features of AMD progression including immune cell activation and photoreceptor cell death. We suggest that early intervention of these inflammatory pathways by targeting miRNA such as miR-124-3p and miR-155-5p or their target genes may prevent progression into late-stage pathology

    Voluntary exercise modulates pathways associated with amelioration of retinal degenerative diseases

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    Background: Exercise has been shown to promote a healthier and longer life and linked to a reduced risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases including retinal degenerations. However, the molecular pathways underpinning exercise-induced cellular protection are not well understood. In this work we aim to profile the molecular changes underlying exercise-induced retinal protection and investigate how exercise-induced inflammatory pathway modulation may slow the progression of retinal degenerations. Methods: Female C57Bl/6J mice at 6 weeks old were given free access to open voluntary running wheels for a period of 28 days and then subjected to 5 days of photo-oxidative damage (PD)-induced retinal degeneration. Following, retinal function (electroretinography; ERG), morphology (optical coherence tomography; OCT) and measures of cell death (TUNEL) and inflammation (IBA1) were analysed and compared to sedentary controls. To decipher global gene expression changes as a result of voluntary exercise, RNA sequencing and pathway and modular gene co-expression analyses were performed on retinal lysates of exercised and sedentary mice that were subjected to PD, as well as healthy dim-reared controls. Results: Following 5 days of PD, exercised mice had significantly preserved retinal function, integrity and reduced levels of retinal cell death and inflammation, compared to sedentary controls. In response to voluntary exercise, inflammatory and extracellular matrix integrity pathways were significantly modulated, with the gene expression profile of exercised mice more closely trending towards that of a healthy dim-reared retina. Conclusion: We suggest that voluntary exercise may mediate retinal protection by influencing key pathways involved in regulating retinal health and shifting the transcriptomic profile to a healthy phenotype

    Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

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    This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from five sites associated with smokin

    Pan-Cancer Analysis of lncRNA Regulation Supports Their Targeting of Cancer Genes in Each Tumor Context

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    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are commonly dys-regulated in tumors, but only a handful are known toplay pathophysiological roles in cancer. We inferredlncRNAs that dysregulate cancer pathways, onco-genes, and tumor suppressors (cancer genes) bymodeling their effects on the activity of transcriptionfactors, RNA-binding proteins, and microRNAs in5,185 TCGA tumors and 1,019 ENCODE assays.Our predictions included hundreds of candidateonco- and tumor-suppressor lncRNAs (cancerlncRNAs) whose somatic alterations account for thedysregulation of dozens of cancer genes and path-ways in each of 14 tumor contexts. To demonstrateproof of concept, we showed that perturbations tar-geting OIP5-AS1 (an inferred tumor suppressor) andTUG1 and WT1-AS (inferred onco-lncRNAs) dysre-gulated cancer genes and altered proliferation ofbreast and gynecologic cancer cells. Our analysis in-dicates that, although most lncRNAs are dysregu-lated in a tumor-specific manner, some, includingOIP5-AS1, TUG1, NEAT1, MEG3, and TSIX, synergis-tically dysregulate cancer pathways in multiple tumorcontexts

    Pan-cancer Alterations of the MYC Oncogene and Its Proximal Network across the Cancer Genome Atlas

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    Although theMYConcogene has been implicated incancer, a systematic assessment of alterations ofMYC, related transcription factors, and co-regulatoryproteins, forming the proximal MYC network (PMN),across human cancers is lacking. Using computa-tional approaches, we define genomic and proteo-mic features associated with MYC and the PMNacross the 33 cancers of The Cancer Genome Atlas.Pan-cancer, 28% of all samples had at least one ofthe MYC paralogs amplified. In contrast, the MYCantagonists MGA and MNT were the most frequentlymutated or deleted members, proposing a roleas tumor suppressors.MYCalterations were mutu-ally exclusive withPIK3CA,PTEN,APC,orBRAFalterations, suggesting that MYC is a distinct onco-genic driver. Expression analysis revealed MYC-associated pathways in tumor subtypes, such asimmune response and growth factor signaling; chro-matin, translation, and DNA replication/repair wereconserved pan-cancer. This analysis reveals insightsinto MYC biology and is a reference for biomarkersand therapeutics for cancers with alterations ofMYC or the PMN

    Spatial Organization and Molecular Correlation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Using Deep Learning on Pathology Images

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    Beyond sample curation and basic pathologic characterization, the digitized H&E-stained images of TCGA samples remain underutilized. To highlight this resource, we present mappings of tumorinfiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) based on H&E images from 13 TCGA tumor types. These TIL maps are derived through computational staining using a convolutional neural network trained to classify patches of images. Affinity propagation revealed local spatial structure in TIL patterns and correlation with overall survival. TIL map structural patterns were grouped using standard histopathological parameters. These patterns are enriched in particular T cell subpopulations derived from molecular measures. TIL densities and spatial structure were differentially enriched among tumor types, immune subtypes, and tumor molecular subtypes, implying that spatial infiltrate state could reflect particular tumor cell aberration states. Obtaining spatial lymphocytic patterns linked to the rich genomic characterization of TCGA samples demonstrates one use for the TCGA image archives with insights into the tumor-immune microenvironment

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis