19 research outputs found

    Legalize cannabis in Nepal to improve Health and Economy

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    Study of In-vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica, and Ocimum sanctum in different organic solvents and Cow urine

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    Background: Neem (Azadirachta indica), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Cow urine (Bos indicus) has been widely used as a therapeutic potential or additive agent in different ethnomedicinal practices as well as modern science also proved its therapeutic potential to treat various diseases and balance the body conditions. Aims: Alone study on Neem, Tulsi and Cow urine (CU) has been widely performed but this study aims to evaluate the individual as well as synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Neem, and Tulsi’s leaves extract in different organic solvents and Cow urine. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was carried out by using 2,2-Diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the antibacterial activity was tested by the agar disc diffusion method against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus)  and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella species) bacteria. Results: The antioxidant and antibacterial activity is concentration-dependent. The neem extract in chloroform shows the highest ZOI against S. aureus (14±2). Similarly, the neem extract in cow urine (8±0.86) and tulsi extract in methanol (8±1.04) shows the highest ZOI against E. coli. Against K. species cow urine is most effective (9±0.29) followed by neem extract in chloroform and cow urine (8±0.77). In P. vulgaris almost all sample shows ZOI around 7 mm. In synergistic antibacterial study tulsi and neem extract in cow urine shows the highest ZOI against E. coli (12±1.75) and P. vulgaris (10±1.44). The tulsi and neem extract in hexane is not effective against S. aureus and E. coli but effective in P. vulgaris and K. species (ZOI 7 mm). Tulsi and neem extract in chloroform, methanol, and cow urine show similar ZOI (9 mm). In DPPH free radical scavenging activity the methanolic extract of tulsi shows the highest inhibition of free radicle (96.35±0.001), followed by methanolic extract of neem (84.85±0.042). The fresh cow urine inhibits (25.19±0.037) followed by neem extract in chloroform (24.53±0.003), neem extract in cow urine (21.8±0.012), tulsi extract in chloroform (20.86±0.047), tulsi extract in hexane (19.5±0.031), tulsi extract in cow urine (18.33±0.023) and the least inhibition by neem extract in hexane (6.74±0.042)

    Mental Health Problems and Patterns of Self-Care Associated with the Use of Digital Devices among University Students

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    Background: Digital devices such as computers, laptops, television (TV) and mobile phones were originally designed to support human beings’ daily activities; however, they may produce several limitations as well as benefits. The main concern of the study was how the utilization of digital devices like laptops, computers and TVs affect the mental health of Nepal’s university students and what are the self-care practices utilized to manage problems? Method: 326 MPhil scholars of Nepal Open University (NOU) participated in this cross-sectional study. Digital devices pattern of use (i.e., TV, laptop and computer), mental health problems, and self-care practices among university students were assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were major statistical techniques used in the research. Results: The study’s researchers found the following mental health problems: depression (21.5%), loneliness (39.9%), anxiety (30.7%), and a loss of the sense of control (47.5%). Significant associations were found between sitting position with loneliness, age and anxiety and the daily use of computer with sense of control, loneliness, and anxiety. Additionally, computer use two to three times a week, laptop use in the evening and sitting on a chair or stool when using digital devices, stood as the main predictors respectively of the sense of control, loneliness, and depression. Few participants with mental health problems used medicine and meditation for self-care. Conclusion: The use of digital devices was associated with mental health problems. Patterns of using computers and the preferred time to use laptops were major contributing factors for one’s sense of control and loneliness, respectively. Therefore, an awareness programme concerning the use of digital devices and their effects on mental health should be communicated among university students

    Learner-Centered Instruction: Teachers’ Practice in Online Class of Mathematics During Covid-19 Pandemic in Nepal

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    Learner-centered instruction is very important concept in virtual and face-to-face classes for enhancing academic performance of students. This research aims to study the status of learner-centered instructions followed by the teachers in online classes during the pandemic and its effectiveness on the mathematics achievement of the learners. The cross-sectional survey design was used by taking 2273 students by convenient sampling from basic to university level of Nepal. The t-test, ANOVA, correlation, and regression techniques were used to analyze the data. The finding of the study indicates that the learning-centered role of teachers was found to be high in mathematics teaching during the pandemic situation in Nepal however teachers are not habituated to give extra time in learning difficulties whereas the problem solving and creative role of teachers were found better as compared to other. Types of the institutions, teaching level, access to the internet, and having tablet are the determinants for the learner-centered instruction in teaching whereas availability of laptop and computer, types of institutions, and access to the internet have significant roles to determine the mathematics achievement. The findings of this research suggest that practice of learner-centered instruction would be useful and beneficial for the learners in online classes

    Learners’ Expectations towards Virtual Learning and its Effect on Mathematics Performance

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    The demands for virtual learning have exponentially increased because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the research was to explore learners’ expectations towards virtual learning and its effect on mathematics achievement. A total of 2,350 students from basic to university levels in Nepal participated in the cross-sectional survey. T-test, ANOVA, and SEM were employed for data analysis. The findings indicate that the expectation of learners towards virtual learning from the government, educational institutions, teachers, and parents found to be significantly high. Parents’ level of education, gender, and the types of educational institutions are key predictors of the expectation of learners. Expectations of learners towards virtual learning from government, institutions, and parents have negative and expectations from teachers have a positive effect on mathematics performance

    Effect of behavioral, emotional and social engagement on cognitive engagement (Model 3).

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    Effect of behavioral, emotional and social engagement on cognitive engagement (Model 3).</p

    S1 Appendix -

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    (DOCX)</p

    Theoretical framework of learner engagement in terms of social, behavioral, cognitive and emotional engagement (black arrow represents the domain of research and blue arrow represents the support connection of theories).

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    Theoretical framework of learner engagement in terms of social, behavioral, cognitive and emotional engagement (black arrow represents the domain of research and blue arrow represents the support connection of theories).</p

    Factor score weights of each item with all latent variables.

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    Factor score weights of each item with all latent variables.</p

    Correlation plot based on the four dimensions.

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    Correlation plot based on the four dimensions.</p
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