27 research outputs found

    The effect of prenatal Ramadan exposure on child health in Indonesia: a longitudinal perspective

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    Although they are permitted to skip fasting, many pregnant Muslim women continue to fast during the holy month of Ramadan. Evidence on the effect of such practice for the health of the conceived child is a topic of debate. Previous cross-sectional studies showed compromised adult health. However, others were against the results. The basis of their argument is insignificant differences in birth weight of relatively younger cohort. Unlike previous studies, we contribute to the debate by presenting the first evidence from a longitudinal panel data analysis. We exploit longitudinal panel structure of the Indonesian Family Life Survey to analyse consequences of being exposed to Ramadan during pregnancy on health in early childhood to late adolescence. By using fixed effect regression model, we find a retarded height growth of those who experienced Ramadan while in utero. Compared to the unexposed, the height growth of boys and girls who were exposed to Ramadan in early pregnancy are 1.33 cm and 1.25 cm less respectively in late adolescence. However, we are unable to find any evidence of negative effects on weight and BMI. Our findings conclude that the effect of prenatal Ramadan exposure develops through age and is not cohort dependent

    Worksite health promotion for employees working from home: A vignette experiment examining intentions to participate

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    This study explores which factors affect employees' intention to participate in worksite health promotion (WHP) when they work from home. Employees increasingly work from home, yet existing WHP is mainly tied to the workplace. We lack knowledge on what might stimulate employees to make use of WHP specifically when they work from home. Drawing on the theory of reasoned action, we studied whether type of activity, duration, if WHP takes place during work time, how often employees work from home (shaping employees' attitude) and colleague participation (social norms) explain employees' intention to participate in WHP when working from home. To do so, we employed a vignette experiment. Results show that employees' intentions are higher for walking and taking breaks than for an online sports class. Moreover, intentions are higher for shorter activities and when participating in WHP can be done during work time. The more colleagues participate, the higher intentions of employees to do so too. By offering WHP for employees at home, employers can promote employees' health even when these are not present in the workplace. Our study provides leads into how employers may create conditions under which employees use WHP when working from home

    Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior.

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    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits

    Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors

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    A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within–identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This estimate reduced to only a 1.5-month later age at first birth for the within–identical twin model controlling for all shared family background factors (genetic and family environmental). Biometric analyses reveal that it is mainly influences of the family environment—not genetic factors—that cause spurious associations between education and age at first birth. Last, using data from the Office for National Statistics, we demonstrate that only 1.9 months of the 2.74 years of fertility postponement for birth cohorts 1944–1967 could be attributed to educational expansion based on these estimates. We conclude that the rise in educational attainment alone cannot explain differences in fertility timing between cohorts.</p

    Discrepancies in Parent’s and Adult Child’s Reports of Support and Contact

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    This study uses data on support and contact in 4,055 parent-child dyads drawn from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study to test explanations of reporting discrepancies, which focus on sources of bias and inaccurate reporting. Contrary to the generational stake hypothesis, parents’ reports are not characterized by a general positive bias. Consistent with notions of self-enhancement, parents and children overreport given help and underreport received help. Parents’ reports are susceptible to positive biases linked with strong feelings of family obligations. Limited evidence is found for an underreporting bias associated with dissatisfaction with support received from family. Positive reporting biases are observed in high-quality relationships. Consistent with expectations, results show greater reporting accuracy among better educated parents and children.

    Acceptance of homosexuality through education? Investigating the role of education, family background and individual characteristics in the United Kingdom

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    Higher educated people tend to be more accepting of homosexuality than lower educated people. This has inspired claims that education leads to a higher acceptance of homosexuality. Alternatively, the association between education and acceptance of homosexuality could be confounded by (un)observed family background and stable individual characteristics. This study investigated the association between education and acceptance of homosexuality and the role of potential confounders in a unique longitudinal sample of British siblings. Multilevel and fixed effects analyses show that both perspectives apply. A large part of the association between education and acceptance of homosexuality could be attributed to family background and observed individual characteristics (one third), as well as unobserved individual characteristics (an additional third), but the positive association remains. Findings are discussed in light of existing explanations regarding the effect of education on the acceptance of homosexuality

    Acceptance of homosexuality through education? Investigating the role of education, family background and individual characteristics in the United Kingdom

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    Higher educated people tend to be more accepting of homosexuality than lower educated people. This has inspired claims that education leads to a higher acceptance of homosexuality. Alternatively, the association between education and acceptance of homosexuality could be confounded by (un)observed family background and stable individual characteristics. This study investigated the association between education and acceptance of homosexuality and the role of potential confounders in a unique longitudinal sample of British siblings. Multilevel and fixed effects analyses show that both perspectives apply. A large part of the association between education and acceptance of homosexuality could be attributed to family background and observed individual characteristics (one third), as well as unobserved individual characteristics (an additional third), but the positive association remains. Findings are discussed in light of existing explanations regarding the effect of education on the acceptance of homosexuality

    Acceptance of homosexuality through education? Investigating the role of education, family background and individual characteristics in the United Kingdom

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    Higher educated people tend to be more accepting of homosexuality than lower educated people. This has inspired claims that education leads to a higher acceptance of homosexuality. Alternatively, the association between education and acceptance of homosexuality could be confounded by (un)observed family background and stable individual characteristics. This study investigated the association between education and acceptance of homosexuality and the role of potential confounders in a unique longitudinal sample of British siblings. Multilevel and fixed effects analyses show that both perspectives apply. A large part of the association between education and acceptance of homosexuality could be attributed to family background and observed individual characteristics (one third), as well as unobserved individual characteristics (an additional third), but the positive association remains. Findings are discussed in light of existing explanations regarding the effect of education on the acceptance of homosexuality

    Vertekening en onnauwkeurigheid in de rapportage van intergenerationele steun en contact door ouder en kind

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    Summary Bias and inaccuracy of parent’s and child’s reports of intergenerational support and contact This paper uses data on intergenerational support and contact in 4,055 parent-child dyads drawn from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study to test explanations of response discrepancies in paired parent and child reports of intergenerational support and contact. The explanations focus on sources of bias and inaccurate reporting. The results do not show a systematic bias of parents compared to children as predicted by the generational stake hypothesis. Rather, response discrepancies are shown to be attributable to biases of parents and children because of social desirability, dissatisfaction with the level of support, and perceived relationship quality, and to inaccurate reporting by respondents with lower levels of education.
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