2,036 research outputs found

    Dynamics of Global Entanglement under Decoherence

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    We investigate the dynamics of global entanglement, the Meyer-Wallach measure, under decoherence, analytically. We study two important class of multi-partite entangled states, the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and the W state. We obtain exact results for various models of system-environment interactions (decoherence). Our results shows distinctly different scaling behavior for these initially entangled states indicating a relative robustness of the W state, consistent with previous studies.Comment: 5 pages and 5 figure

    Emergence of pointer states in a non-perturbative environment

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    We show that the pointer basis distinguished by collisional decoherence consists of exponentially localized, solitonic wave packets. Based on the orthogonal unraveling of the quantum master equation, we characterize their formation and dynamics, and we demonstrate that the statistical weights arising from an initial superposition state are given by the required projection. Since the spatial width of the pointer states can be obtained by accounting for the gas environment in a microscopically realistic fashion, one may thus calculate the coherence length of a strongly interacting gas.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure; corresponds to published versio

    On the precise connection between the GRW master-equation and master-equations for the description of decoherence

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    We point out that the celebrated GRW master-equation is invariant under translations, reflecting the homogeneity of space, thus providing a particular realization of a general class of translation-covariant Markovian master-equations. Such master-equations are typically used for the description of decoherence due to momentum transfers between system and environment. Building on this analogy we show the exact relationship between the GRW master-equation and decoherence master-equations, further providing a collisional decoherence model formally equivalent to the GRW master-equation. This allows for a direct comparison of order of magnitudes of relevant parameters. This formal analogy should not lead to confusion on the utterly different spirit of the two research fields, in particular it has to be stressed that the decoherence approach does not lead to a solution of the measurement problem. Building on this analogy however the feasibility of the extension of spontaneous localization models in order to avoid the infinite energy growth is discussed. Apart from a particular case considered in the paper, it appears that the amplification mechanism is generally spoiled by such modifications.Comment: 9 pages, latex, no figures, to appear on J. Phys.

    Finite-Time Disentanglement via Spontaneous Emission

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    We show that under the influence of pure vacuum noise two entangled qubits become completely disentangled in a finite time, and in a specific example we find the time to be given by ln(2+22)\ln \Big(\frac{2 +\sqrt 2}{2}\Big) times the usual spontaneous lifetime.Comment: revtex, 4 pages, 2 figure

    Quantum decoherence in the theory of open systems

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    In the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems, we determine the degree of quantum decoherence of a harmonic oscillator interacting with a thermal bath. It is found that the system manifests a quantum decoherence which is more and more significant in time. We calculate also the decoherence time scale and analyze the transition from quantum to classical behaviour of the considered system.Comment: 6 pages; talk at the 3rd International Workshop "Quantum Physics and Communication" (QPC 2005), Dubna, Russia, 200

    Localization of Relative-Position of Two Atoms Induced by Spontaneous Emission

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    We revisit the back-action of emitted photons on the motion of the relative position of two cold atoms. We show that photon recoil resulting from the spontaneous emission can induce the localization of the relative position of the two atoms through the entanglement between the spatial motion of individual atoms and their emitted photons. The result provides a more realistic model for the analysis of the environment-induced localization of a macroscopic object.Comment: 8 pages and 4 figure

    Sum Rules for the Dirac Spectrum of the Schwinger Model

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    The inverse eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in the Schwinger model satisfy the same Leutwyler-Smilga sum rules as in the case of QCD with one flavor. In this paper we give a microscopic derivation of these sum rules in the sector of arbitrary topological charge. We show that the sum rules can be obtained from the clustering property of the scalar correlation functions. This argument also holds for other theories with a mass gap and broken chiral symmetry such as QCD with one flavor. For QCD with several flavors a modified clustering property is derived from the low energy chiral Lagrangian. We also obtain sum rules for a fixed external gauge field and show their relation with the bosonized version of the Schwinger model. In the sector of topological charge \nu the sum rules are consistent with a shift of the Dirac spectrum away from zero by /2\nu/2 average level spacings. This shift is also required to obtain a nonzero chiral condensate in the massless limit. Finally, we discuss the Dirac spectrum for a closely related two-dimensional theory for which the gauge field action is quadratic in the the gauge fields. This theory of so called random Dirac fermions has been discussed extensively in the context of the quantum Hall effect and d-wave super-conductors.Comment: 41 pages, Late

    Quantum Superposition of Massive Objects and Collapse Models

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    We analyze the requirements to test some of the most paradigmatic collapse models with a protocol that prepares quantum superpositions of massive objects. This consists of coherently expanding the wave function of a ground-state-cooled mechanical resonator, performing a squared position measurement that acts as a double slit, and observing interference after further evolution. The analysis is performed in a general framework and takes into account only unavoidable sources of decoherence: blackbody radiation and scattering of environmental particles. We also discuss the limitations imposed by the experimental implementation of this protocol using cavity quantum optomechanics with levitating dielectric nanospheres.Comment: 19 pages, 17 figure

    Collective versus Single--Particle Motion in Quantum Many--Body Systems: Spreading and its Semiclassical Interpretation

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    We study the interplay between collective and incoherent single-particle motion in a model of two chains of particles whose interaction comprises a non-integrable part. In the perturbative regime, but for a general form of the interaction, we calculate the spectral density for collective excitations. We obtain the remarkable result that it always has a unique semiclassical interpretation. We show this by a proper renormalization procedure which allows us to map our system to a Caldeira-Leggett--type of model in which the bath is part of the system.Comment: 4 page

    Limits in the characteristic function description of non-Lindblad-type open quantum systems

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    In this paper I investigate the usability of the characteristic functions for the description of the dynamics of open quantum systems focussing on non-Lindblad-type master equations. I consider, as an example, a non-Markovian generalized master equation containing a memory kernel which may lead to nonphysical time evolutions characterized by negative values of the density matrix diagonal elements [S.M. Barnett and S. Stenholm, Phys. Rev. A {\bf 64}, 033808 (2001)]. The main result of the paper is to demonstrate that there exist situations in which the symmetrically ordered characteristic function is perfectly well defined while the corresponding density matrix loses positivity. Therefore nonphysical situations may not show up in the characteristic function. As a consequence, the characteristic function cannot be considered an {\it alternative complete} description of the non-Lindblad dynamics.Comment: Revised version. 4 pages, 1 figur
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