2,036 research outputs found

### Dynamics of Global Entanglement under Decoherence

We investigate the dynamics of global entanglement, the Meyer-Wallach
measure, under decoherence, analytically. We study two important class of
multi-partite entangled states, the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and the W
state. We obtain exact results for various models of system-environment
interactions (decoherence). Our results shows distinctly different scaling
behavior for these initially entangled states indicating a relative robustness
of the W state, consistent with previous studies.Comment: 5 pages and 5 figure

### Emergence of pointer states in a non-perturbative environment

We show that the pointer basis distinguished by collisional decoherence
consists of exponentially localized, solitonic wave packets. Based on the
orthogonal unraveling of the quantum master equation, we characterize their
formation and dynamics, and we demonstrate that the statistical weights arising
from an initial superposition state are given by the required projection. Since
the spatial width of the pointer states can be obtained by accounting for the
gas environment in a microscopically realistic fashion, one may thus calculate
the coherence length of a strongly interacting gas.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure; corresponds to published versio

### On the precise connection between the GRW master-equation and master-equations for the description of decoherence

We point out that the celebrated GRW master-equation is invariant under
translations, reflecting the homogeneity of space, thus providing a particular
realization of a general class of translation-covariant Markovian
master-equations. Such master-equations are typically used for the description
of decoherence due to momentum transfers between system and environment.
Building on this analogy we show the exact relationship between the GRW
master-equation and decoherence master-equations, further providing a
collisional decoherence model formally equivalent to the GRW master-equation.
This allows for a direct comparison of order of magnitudes of relevant
parameters. This formal analogy should not lead to confusion on the utterly
different spirit of the two research fields, in particular it has to be
stressed that the decoherence approach does not lead to a solution of the
measurement problem. Building on this analogy however the feasibility of the
extension of spontaneous localization models in order to avoid the infinite
energy growth is discussed. Apart from a particular case considered in the
paper, it appears that the amplification mechanism is generally spoiled by such
modifications.Comment: 9 pages, latex, no figures, to appear on J. Phys.

### Finite-Time Disentanglement via Spontaneous Emission

We show that under the influence of pure vacuum noise two entangled qubits
become completely disentangled in a finite time, and in a specific example we
find the time to be given by $\ln \Big(\frac{2 +\sqrt 2}{2}\Big)$ times the
usual spontaneous lifetime.Comment: revtex, 4 pages, 2 figure

### Quantum decoherence in the theory of open systems

In the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems, we
determine the degree of quantum decoherence of a harmonic oscillator
interacting with a thermal bath. It is found that the system manifests a
quantum decoherence which is more and more significant in time. We calculate
also the decoherence time scale and analyze the transition from quantum to
classical behaviour of the considered system.Comment: 6 pages; talk at the 3rd International Workshop "Quantum Physics and
Communication" (QPC 2005), Dubna, Russia, 200

### Localization of Relative-Position of Two Atoms Induced by Spontaneous Emission

We revisit the back-action of emitted photons on the motion of the relative
position of two cold atoms. We show that photon recoil resulting from the
spontaneous emission can induce the localization of the relative position of
the two atoms through the entanglement between the spatial motion of individual
atoms and their emitted photons. The result provides a more realistic model for
the analysis of the environment-induced localization of a macroscopic object.Comment: 8 pages and 4 figure

### Sum Rules for the Dirac Spectrum of the Schwinger Model

The inverse eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in the Schwinger model satisfy
the same Leutwyler-Smilga sum rules as in the case of QCD with one flavor. In
this paper we give a microscopic derivation of these sum rules in the sector of
arbitrary topological charge. We show that the sum rules can be obtained from
the clustering property of the scalar correlation functions. This argument also
holds for other theories with a mass gap and broken chiral symmetry such as QCD
with one flavor. For QCD with several flavors a modified clustering property is
derived from the low energy chiral Lagrangian. We also obtain sum rules for a
fixed external gauge field and show their relation with the bosonized version
of the Schwinger model. In the sector of topological charge $\nu$ the sum rules
are consistent with a shift of the Dirac spectrum away from zero by $\nu/2$
average level spacings. This shift is also required to obtain a nonzero chiral
condensate in the massless limit. Finally, we discuss the Dirac spectrum for a
closely related two-dimensional theory for which the gauge field action is
quadratic in the the gauge fields. This theory of so called random Dirac
fermions has been discussed extensively in the context of the quantum Hall
effect and d-wave super-conductors.Comment: 41 pages, Late

### Quantum Superposition of Massive Objects and Collapse Models

We analyze the requirements to test some of the most paradigmatic collapse
models with a protocol that prepares quantum superpositions of massive objects.
This consists of coherently expanding the wave function of a
ground-state-cooled mechanical resonator, performing a squared position
measurement that acts as a double slit, and observing interference after
further evolution. The analysis is performed in a general framework and takes
into account only unavoidable sources of decoherence: blackbody radiation and
scattering of environmental particles. We also discuss the limitations imposed
by the experimental implementation of this protocol using cavity quantum
optomechanics with levitating dielectric nanospheres.Comment: 19 pages, 17 figure

### Collective versus Single--Particle Motion in Quantum Many--Body Systems: Spreading and its Semiclassical Interpretation

We study the interplay between collective and incoherent single-particle
motion in a model of two chains of particles whose interaction comprises a
non-integrable part. In the perturbative regime, but for a general form of the
interaction, we calculate the spectral density for collective excitations. We
obtain the remarkable result that it always has a unique semiclassical
interpretation. We show this by a proper renormalization procedure which allows
us to map our system to a Caldeira-Leggett--type of model in which the bath is
part of the system.Comment: 4 page

### Limits in the characteristic function description of non-Lindblad-type open quantum systems

In this paper I investigate the usability of the characteristic functions for
the description of the dynamics of open quantum systems focussing on
non-Lindblad-type master equations. I consider, as an example, a non-Markovian
generalized master equation containing a memory kernel which may lead to
nonphysical time evolutions characterized by negative values of the density
matrix diagonal elements [S.M. Barnett and S. Stenholm, Phys. Rev. A {\bf 64},
033808 (2001)]. The main result of the paper is to demonstrate that there exist
situations in which the symmetrically ordered characteristic function is
perfectly well defined while the corresponding density matrix loses positivity.
Therefore nonphysical situations may not show up in the characteristic
function. As a consequence, the characteristic function cannot be considered an
{\it alternative complete} description of the non-Lindblad dynamics.Comment: Revised version. 4 pages, 1 figur

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