10,153 research outputs found

    Hedging Effectiveness on the MISO Exchange

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    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of four commonly used hedging techniques on wholesale electricity prices within the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) energy market.  This analysis provides and in-depth assessment of hedging performance on one of the largest power markets in North America. In a break from extant literature, hourly time series are used to create hedge portfolios for each of the regional hubs within the MISO footprint. Each risk management strategy is employed on 24 hourly time series for each of the eight regional hubs within the MISO footprint. This results in a total of 768 hedged portfolios across 192 hourly time series. While the naïve approach tends to outperform the others in terms of variance reduction, none of the strategies examined meet the generally accepted standard for a highly effective hedge. In several instances, the hedged portfolio contains a higher amount of risk than the unhedged position.  This may be explained by the unique characteristics of wholesale electricity and hedging pressure, particularly during peak demand hours. 

    Data_Sheet_1_Acid-active proteases to optimize dietary protein digestibility: a step towards sustainable nutrition.docx

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    IntroductionHistorically, prioritizing abundant food production often resulted in overlooking nutrient quality and bioavailability, however, environmental concerns have now propelled sustainable nutrition and health efficacy to the forefront of global attention. In fact, increasing demand for protein is the major challenge facing the food system in the 21st century with an estimation that 70% more food is needed by 2050. This shift has spurred interest in plant-based proteins for their sustainability and health benefits, but most alternative sources of protein are poorly digestible. There are two approaches to solve digestibility: improve the digestibility of food proteins or improve the digestive capacity of consumers. Enhancing nutrient digestibility and bioavailability across diverse protein sources is crucial, with proteases presenting a promising avenue. Research, inspired by the proteases of human breast milk, has demonstrated that exogenous microbial proteases can activate within the human digestive tract and substantially increase the digestion of targeted proteins that are otherwise difficult to fully digest.MethodsHere, we introduce the use of an acid-active family of bacterial proteases (S53) to improve the digestibility and nutritional quality of a variety of protein sources, evaluated using the INFOGEST 2.0 protocol.ResultsResults from in vitro digestibility indicate that the most effective protease in the S53 family substantially improves the digestibility of an array of animal and plant-derived proteins—soy, pea, chickpea, rice, casein, and whey. On average, this protease elevated protein digestibility by 115% during the gastric phase and by 15% in the intestinal phase, based on the degree of hydrolysis.DiscussionThe widespread adoption of these proteases has the potential to enhance nutritional value and contribute to food security and sustainability. This approach would complement ongoing efforts to improve proteins in the food supply, increase the quality of more sustainable protein sources and aid in the nourishment of patients with clinically compromised, fragile intestines and individuals like older adults and high-performance athletes who have elevated protein needs.</p

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb−1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ±\pm 0.002 (stat) ±\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ±\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Multiplicity dependence of σψ(2S)/σJ/ψ\sigma_{\psi(2S)}/\sigma_{J/\psi} in pppp collisions at s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV

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    International audienceThe ratio of production cross-sections of ψ(2S)\psi(2S) over J/ψJ/\psi mesons as a function of charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV is measured with a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 658 pb−1^{-1}. The ratio is measured for both prompt and non-prompt ψ(2S)\psi(2S) and J/ψJ/\psi mesons. When there is an overlap between the rapidity ranges over which multiplicity and charmonia production are measured, a multiplicity-dependent modification of the ratio is observed for prompt mesons. No significant multiplicity dependence is found when the ranges do not overlap. For non-prompt production, the ψ(2S)−to−J/ψ\psi(2S)-to-J/\psi production ratio is roughly independent of multiplicity irrespective of the rapidity range over which the multiplicity is measured. The results are compared to predictions of the co-mover model and agree well except in the low multiplicity region. The ratio of production cross-sections of ψ(2S)\psi(2S) over J/ψJ/\psi mesons are cross-checked with other measurements in di-lepton channels and found to be compatible

    Measurement of multidifferential cross sections for dijet production in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV