7,240 research outputs found

    From the sage on the stage to what exactly? Description and the place of the moderator in co‐operative and collaborative learning

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    This paper reports a significant finding from a two‐year study of computer conferencing used to deliver a course unit at a UK university. Computer conferencing has been applied to education alongside a concern to develop co‐operative and collaborative learning strategies. The technology of computer conferencing has been identified as especially appropriate to a co‐operative style of work. This study found that far from collaboration being an outcome of the deployment of computer conferencing it became in some sense the problem. A common ‘gloss’ on the educational changes that are taking place, with the introduction of new technologies for teaching and learning, is that the ‘sage on the stage’ is being replaced by ‘the guide on the side’. This paper argues that this opposition rests on little substantial evidence or research. The moderator/facilitator role advocated as suitable for computer conferencing is shown to be deeply embedded in wider social actions. The orientations of the tutor are heavily inclined towards the demands of assessment. Successful computer‐supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is the outcome of the co‐operative work of all the members of the conference. The application of CSCL relies upon timely interventions by the tutor


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    Why the Marginal Social Cost of Funds is not the Shadow Value of Government Revenue

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    No distinction is made between the marginal social cost of public funds (MCF) and the shadow value of government revenue in the public finance literature. Their separate roles are demonstrated in this paper, where the MCF is used as a scaling coefficient to account for changes in tax inefficiency on revenue transfers made to balance the government budget, while the shadow value of government revenue is used as a scaling coefficient to convert efficiency effects into actual changes in utility. We find a revenue effect identified by Atkinson and Stern (1974) and Dahlby (1998) in the shadow value of government revenue which is not present in the MCF. It is the reason why, in the presence of distorting taxes, the shadow value of government revenue can differ from unity, whereas the MCF is always unity, for a lump-sum tax.

    Aggregate and Sector Import Price Elasticities for a Sample of African Countries

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    This paper applies panel data methods to a simple imperfect substitutes model to estimate import demand elasticities for ten African countries. The elasticities are estimated at three levels of aggregation. Firstly, we generate aggregate elasticities for each country. Secondly, we use interactive dummy variables to create estimates for 16 sectors defined by the World Customs Organisation (WCO). Finally, we estimate elasticities for each of the 94 2-digit product lines defined by the Harmonised System (HS). In total there are 10 aggregate estimates, 158 estimates for the 16 WCO sectors; and 911 estimates at the 2-digit level. Using Fixed-Effects, the aggregate estimates do not differ significantly from unity. However, as we move to different levels of aggregation the estimates have much more variability. In general, import demand appears more elastic in sectors that have relatively high levels of domestic production or where there are exports.Imports, Import Demand Elasticities, Africa