21 research outputs found

    Funcionamiento ejecutivo: modelos conceptuales

    Get PDF
    The development of civilization and society, the achievement of goals and achieving personal goals, depend on the proper functioning of the prefrontal cortex and executive functioning in particular. Which is understood as a complex and highly non-specific metacognitive control operation, which would include various behavioral compose that would facilitate the planning, development goals, mental flexibility, behavior regulation and control of other cognitive processes. The neuropsychological approach to executive functioning has developed different conceptual models, here we present the most important, such as working memory, the supervisory attentional system and hierarchical model of cognitive functions. Also discuss some important aspects for assessment and the instruments used for executive functioning.El desarrollo de la civilización y la sociedad, la consecución de metas y el logro de objetivos personales, dependen del funcionamiento correcto del córtex prefrontal y en especial del funcionamiento ejecutivo. El cual es comprendido como un funcionamiento altamente complejo e inespecífico de control metacognitivo, que comprendería distintos compones que propiciarían la planeación conductual, el desarrollo de objetivos, la flexibilidad mental, regulación de la conducta y el control de otros procesos cognitivos. El abordaje neuropsicológico del funcionamiento ejecutivo ha desarrollado distintos modelos conceptuales, aquí exponemos los más importantes, como el de memoria de trabajo, el sistema atencional supervisor y modelo jerárquico de funciones cognitivas. Comentamos además algunos aspectos importantes para su evaluación y los instrumentos más utilizados para el funcionamiento ejecutivo

    ESTUDIO CL√ćNICO-DESCRIPTIVO EN EL CENTRO DE SALUD MENTAL MOIS√ČS HERESI, EN AREQUIPA

    Get PDF
    La Organizaci√≥n Mundial de la Salud (oms) define a la salud como un estado de completo bienestar f√≠sico, mental y social, y no solamente la ausencia de afecciones o enfermedades. En este mundo contempor√°neo, de cambios r√°pidos en el desarrollo socioecon√≥mico y humano, es cada vez m√°s frecuente encontrar personas con alguna afectaci√≥n de la esfera mental. Nos propusimos conocer las caracter√≠sticas sociodemogr√°ficos y cl√≠nicas de aquellos pacientes atendidos durante el a√Īo 2011 en el Centro de Salud Mental Mois√©s Heresi de Arequipa. El presente trabajo es un estudio descriptivo que analiz√≥ 548 historias cl√≠nicas de pacientes atendidos en consulta externa de psiquiatr√≠a y psicolog√≠a e internamiento de la instituci√≥n. Se evidencia la mayor incidencia de trastornos del humor (afectivos); adem√°s, se observa trastornos mentales y del comportamiento asociados con el consumo de sustancias, y trastornos del pensamiento

    Neosexismo y autoconcepto en adolescentes peruanos de educación básica regular

    Get PDF
    Introduction: Sexism refers to the attitude of prejudice or discriminatory conduct based on the alleged inferiority or difference of women as a group. However, in the last decade the social changes have varied perspective, initiating a stage of acceptance and differentiation from concept to neosexism. The neosexism is a manifestation of a conflict between equalitarian values and residual negative feelings toward women. Several investigations indicate their relation to the formation of self-concept among adolescents. Objective: The aim of this research is to establish a relationship between self-concept and neosexism in adolescents. Method: It is a quantitative research whit an ex post facto design. Sample: 350 male and female adolescents aged between 14 and 15 years old in the city of Arequipa. For evaluating, it was used the Neosexism Scale (validity: 0.78 and reliability: 0.58) and the adjectives list for assessing self-concept (Validity: 0.71 and reliability: 0.83). Results: The results reflect gender differences in neosexism among adolescents, showing the persistence of discriminatory concepts of men and women.Introducci√≥n: Hablar de sexismo hace alusi√≥n a la actitud de prejuicio o conducta discriminatoria basada en la supuesta inferioridad o diferencia de las mujeres como grupo. Sin embargo, en la √ļltima d√©cada los cambios sociales ocurridos han variado la perspectiva, iniciando una etapa de aceptaci√≥n y diferenciaci√≥n del concepto al t√©rmino neosexismo. El neosexismo no es sino la manifestaci√≥n de un conflicto entre los valores igualitarios y los sentimientos residuales negativos hacia las mujeres. Diversas investigaciones se√Īalan su relaci√≥n con la formaci√≥n del autoconcepto entre los adolescentes. Objetivo: Establecer la relaci√≥n existente entre neosexismo y autoconcepto en adolescentes. M√©todo: La investigaci√≥n es de tipo cuantitativo con un dise√Īo expostfacto. Muestra: Estuvo conformada por 350 adolescentes varones y mujeres entre 14 y 15 a√Īos de edad de la ciudad de Arequipa. Para la evaluaci√≥n, se utiliz√≥ la Escala de neosexismo (validez: 0.78 y confiabilidad: 0.58) y listado de adjetivos para la evaluaci√≥n de autoconcepto (Validez: 0.71 y confiabilidad: 0.83). Resultados: Se reflejan diferencias de g√©nero en neosexismo entre los adolescentes; evidenciando la persistencia de concepciones discriminatorias entre hombres y mujeres

    ANOREXIA NERVIOSA Y SU ABORDAJE NEUROPSICOL√ďGICO: A PROP√ďSITO DE UN CASO

    Get PDF
    La anorexia nerviosa (AN) es un trastorno del comportamiento alimentario (TCA) grave,  caracterizado por un rechazo a mantener un peso ‚Äúnormal‚ÄĚ, que se acompa√Īa de rasgos obsesivos, alteraci√≥n del √°nimo y el pensamiento. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una evaluaci√≥n neuropsicol√≥gica de un caso de anorexia nerviosa, brindando especial atenci√≥n a los conceptos de funciones ejecutivas y cognici√≥n social. Utilizamos el m√©todo de caso cl√≠nico de una paciente con AN, diagnosticada seg√ļn el DSM-IV-TR, controlada m√©dicamente en un hospital psiqui√°trico, se le eval√ļa con una amplia bater√≠a cl√≠nica (Inventario Cl√≠nico Millon II, WAIS-III, Trail Making Test A-B, Tarjetas de Winsconsin, Test del ZOO, Fluencia Verbal y el IOWA Gambling Task y Test de Lectura de Mente en la Mirada). Resultados: Se encuentran rasgos esquizoides, evitativo y auto-derrotistas, adem√°s depresi√≥n y ansiedad. Presenta alteraciones en el reconocimiento de las intenciones y creencias de otros, as√≠ como alteraciones en la planificaci√≥n, flexibilidad mental, razonamiento y toma de decisiones

    Clima organizacional, síndrome de burnout y afrontamiento en trabajadores de un hospital oncológico de Arequipa

    Get PDF
    The aim of this article is to show the results of a research in an organizational climate, burnout syndrome and coping styles had been correlated in a simple of workers from Hospital Regional de Enfermedades Neopl√°sicas de Arequipa. In order to, we use three instruments: Organizational Climate Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Coping Behavior Before Stress Situations Questionnaire. They were tested 93 workersfrom the hospital (67.7% female y 32.3% male) aged between 19 and 62 years old, with a medium age of 34 years. Administrative workers make up 57% of de sample and the remaining 43% consists of health personnel. Three instruments were used: Organizational Climate Questionnaire, ther Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Coping Behaviors Questionnaire Stress Situations. The results show that there are optimal organizational climate and low levels of burnout syndrome in the vast majority of workers. However, the recognition and salary were less satisfactory aspects. No significant relationships were found between organizational climate and burnout, but between organizational climate and active coping style, which was the most predominant. In addition, active coping was related to age, sex, marital status, number of children and type of work performed (p <.05).El objetivo de este estudio fue la valoraci√≥n del clima organizacional en el Hospital Regional de enfermedades Neopl√°sicas de Arequipa (IREN-SUR), adem√°s de evaluar el s√≠ndrome de burnout y los estilos de afrontamiento en los trabajadores, para luego establecer correlaciones entre estas variables. Fueron evaluados 93 trabajadores del hospital (67.7% mujeres y 32.3% varones) con un rango de edad entre 19 y 62 a√Īos, con una edad promedio de 34 a√Īos. Lostrabajadores administrativos hacen el 57% de la muestra y el restante 43% lo constituyen el personal de salud. Se utilizaron tres instrumentos: el Cuestionario de Clima Organizacional, el Inventario de Burnout de Maslach y el Cuestionario de Conductas de Afrontamiento en Situaciones de Estr√©s. Los resultados se√Īalan que existen un clima organizacional √≥ptimo y bajos niveles de s√≠ndrome de burnout en la gran mayor√≠a de trabajadores. Sin embargo, el reconocimiento y el sueldo fueron los aspectos menos satisfactorios. No se encontraron relaciones significativas entre clima organizacional y burnout, pero s√≠ entre clima organizacional y el estilo de afrontamiento activo, que fue el m√°s predominante. Asimismo, el afrontamiento activo se relaciona con la edad, elsexo, el estado civil, el n√ļmero de hijos y el tipo de trabajo que se realiza (p<0.05)

    Social Cognition and Executive Function Impairment in Young Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Get PDF
    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a very debilitating disorder and has shown different cognitive deficit patterns. Some of them are controversial because they relate some deficit with autistic traits. Both, social cognition and executive function are top-down processes that regulate social interaction and adaptive behavior in a complex world. Neurocognitive profiles focused on this process are especially useful as endophenotypes in clinic research and intervention.The aims of this study are (1) assessing the contribution of social cognition and executive function to socio-emotional and neurocognitive patterns in anorexia nervosa and (2) investigating the possible relationships between social cognition tasks and executive function measures and clinic features in this eating disorder. Fifteen adolescents with anorexia nervosa and 15 healthy controls took part in this study. Patients were diagnosed with DSM-IV-R criteria. They had suffered the disease for 3 years (SD ¬Ī 1.47). They were compared in social cognition (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and the IOWA Gambling Task) and executive function (verbal fluency tasks, trail making test, and digit span test [DST] from the WAIS-III). The results show that there was a significant difference in social cognition, at the theory of mind and the IOWA gambling task. Finally, for the executive function task, adolescents with AN displayed significant differences in both direct DST and inverse DST, as well as in semantic fluency and phonological fluency compared with controls. These domains show different highly-significant relationships that could explain neurocognitive profiles. In conclusion, many differences were found between adolescents with AN and healthy controls. AN patients displayed important deficits in theory of mind recognition, executive function, and decision making. These deficits could play a role in maintaining pathological patterns and also important endophenotypes in research and intervention might be considered

    Prevalencia de patolog√≠a dual en el sur del Per√ļ: estudio cl√≠nico-descriptivo

    Get PDF
    Comorbidity between substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders or dual diagnosis (PD) is characterized by difficulty in their therapeutic approach, constant relapses and hospital admissions, as well as higher violent and criminal behavior. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of PD in individuals treated at a psychiatric center in Arequipa, Peru. It is a descriptive epidemiological study based on analysis of 445 case histories (HC) of patients admitted during the period of three years (2011-2013). Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of subjects by comparing those who had a diagnosis of PD, with those who had a diagnosis just by consuming psychotropic substances were established. The results show a prevalence of dual diagnosis in 49%. The average ages were M = 31.45, DS = 15.59 in the with dual diagnosis group CPD and M = 33.93, DS = 15.48 in the without dual diagnosis group SPD; the prevalence of substance use was 51% SPD. Alcohol was the most used substance, followed by cannabis marijuana and cocaine base (PBC). The socio-family and individual vulnerability of the population is evidence for protection or resistance to mental illness, as well as the lack of implementation of effective policies in mental health care for dual disorders, showing worse prognosis and indexes every time higher.La comorbilidad entre un trastorno por uso de sustancias y otros trastornos psiqui√°tricos o patolog√≠a dual (PD) se caracteriza por la dificultad en su abordaje terap√©utico, reca√≠das constantes e ingresos hospitalarios. Nuestro objetivo fue conocer la prevalencia de PD en un centro psiqui√°trico de Arequipa-Per√ļ. Es un estudio descriptivo epidemiol√≥gico basado en el an√°lisis de 445 historias cl√≠nicas (HC) de pacientes ingresados durante el lapso de tres a√Īos (periodo 2011-2013). Se establecieron caracter√≠sticas sociodemogr√°ficas y cl√≠nicas de los sujetos comparando entre quienes presentaron un diagn√≥stico de PD, con aquellos que solo tuvieron diagn√≥stico por consumo de sustancias psic√≥tropas. Los resultados evidencian una prevalencia de patolog√≠a dual de 49%. Las edades promedio fueron de M = 31.45, DE = 15.59 en el grupo con patolog√≠a dual (CPD) y M = 33.93, DE = 15.48 en el grupo sin patolog√≠a dual (SPD); la prevalencia del consumo de sustancias SPD fue del 51%. El alcohol fue la sustancia m√°s consumida, seguida de cannabis, marihuana y la pasta b√°sica de coca√≠na (PBC). Se evidencia la vulnerabilidad socio-familiar e individual de la poblaci√≥n en cuanto a protecci√≥n o resistencia frente a la enfermedad mental, adem√°s de la carencia de pol√≠ticas efectivas en salud mental, que muestran peor pron√≥stico e √≠ndices cada vez m√°s elevados

    Impact of sociodemographic features and lifestyle on cognitive performance of Peruvian adults

    Get PDF
    Background: Cognitive impairment and dementia may result from a combination of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk and protective factors, such as the environment, educational attainment, time devoted to cognitively stimulating activities, and physical activity. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors in the years of education and cognitive performance in Peruvian adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,478 subjects assessed by Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R). Using mediation models, we evaluated the mediation role of parents’ educational level, reading time (RT), and physical activity time (PAT) in the years of education (IYE) and cognitive performance. Results: People who reported having lived in an urban area during their childhood are estimated to have, on average, 2.085 years more formal education than those who lived in rural areas. In addition, 49% of cognitive performance scores are explained by the mediation effect of reading and physical activity time in the IYE. This implies that higher levels of education, mediated by RT and PAT per week, are 1.596 units associated with higher scores on the ACE-R. Conclusion: Despite the fact that nonmodifiable factors (i.e., childhood residence area, parents’ educational level) seem to exert an effect on older adults’ cognition, their influence is mediated by other factors that are indeed modifiable (i.e., reading time, physical activity engagement). In this sense, lifestyle changes could help prevent or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment and reduce the disease’s impact on vulnerable environments in Latin American and Caribbean countries

    Response Facilitation Induced by Insulin-like Growth Factor-I in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of MiceWas Reduced in Aging.

    Get PDF
    Aging is accompanied by a decline in cognition that can be due to a lower IGF-I level. We studied response facilitation induced in primary somatosensory (S1) cortical neurons by repetitive stimulation of whiskers in young and old mice. Layer 2/3 and 5/6 neurons were extracellularly recorded in young ( 6 months of age) and old ( 20 month of age) anesthetized mice. IGF-I injection in S1 cortex (10 nM; 0.2 L) increased whisker responses in young and old animals. A stimulation train at 8 Hz induced a long-lasting response facilitation in only layer 2/3 neurons of young animals. However, all cortical neurons from young and old animals showed long-lasting response facilitation when IGF-I was applied in the S1 cortex. The reduction in response facilitation in old animals can be due to a reduction in the IGF-I receptors as was indicated by the immunohistochemistry study. Furthermore, a reduction in the performance of a whisker discrimination task was observed in old animals. In conclusion, our findings indicate that there is a reduction in the synaptic plasticity of S1 neurons during aging that can be recovered by IGF-I. Therefore, it opens the possibility of use IGF-I as a therapeutic tool to ameliorate the effects of heathy aging.post-print2685 K

    How can cry acoustics associate newborns’ distress levels with neurophysiological and behavioral signals?

    Get PDF
    IntroductionEven though infant crying is a common phenomenon in humans’ early life, it is still a challenge for researchers to properly understand it as a reflection of complex neurophysiological functions. Our study aims to determine the association between neonatal cry acoustics with neurophysiological signals and behavioral features according to different cry distress levels of newborns.MethodsMultimodal data from 25 healthy term newborns were collected simultaneously recording infant cry vocalizations, electroencephalography (EEG), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and videos of facial expressions and body movements. Statistical analysis was conducted on this dataset to identify correlations among variables during three different infant conditions (i.e., resting, cry, and distress). A Deep Learning (DL) algorithm was used to objectively and automatically evaluate the level of cry distress in infants.ResultsWe found correlations between most of the features extracted from the signals depending on the infant’s arousal state, among them: fundamental frequency (F0), brain activity (delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands), cerebral and body oxygenation, heart rate, facial tension, and body rigidity. Additionally, these associations reinforce that what is occurring at an acoustic level can be characterized by behavioral and neurophysiological patterns. Finally, the DL audio model developed was able to classify the different levels of distress achieving 93% accuracy.ConclusionOur findings strengthen the potential of crying as a biomarker evidencing the physical, emotional and health status of the infant becoming a crucial tool for caregivers and clinicians
    corecore