1,429 research outputs found

    A survey of factors influencing career preference in new-entrant and exiting medical students from four UK medical schools

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    Our thanks to Professor Gillian Needham and Dr Murray Lough for their encouragement and support, and their comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript. Our thanks also to NHS Education for Scotland [NES] for funding, and the Scottish Medical Deans Education Group [SMDEG] for supporting this project. We are grateful to all the students who gave their time to complete the survey questionnaire and to those who helped organise and carry out data collection.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Describing, predicting and explaining adherence to total skin self-examination (TSSE) in people with melanoma : a 12-month longitudinal study

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    Funding This work was supported by a grant from a Cancer Research UK Population Research Committee project award (C10673/A21685).Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Relationship between sociodemographic factors and specialty destination of UK trainee doctors:a national cohort study

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    We are grateful to UKMED for releasing the data for this project. We also are grateful to the following for their support of the application to UKMED for this and other research projects: Dr Sally Curtis (University of Southampton, UK), Dr Sandra Nicholson (Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, UK). We thank Daniel Smith and Andy Knapton of the General Medical Council of the UK for their support for the application and throughout the project, particularly regarding data linkage and troubleshooting.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Structure–property insights into nanostructured electrodes for Li-ion batteries from local structural and diffusional probes

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    Microwave heating presents a faster, lower energy synthetic methodology for the realization of functional materials. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that employing this method also leads to a decrease in the occurrence of defects in olivine structured LiFe1−xMnxPO4. For example, the presence of antisite defects in this structure precludes Li+ diffusion along the b-axis leading to a significant decrease in reversible capacities. Total scattering measurements, in combination with Li+ diffusion studies using muon spin relaxation (μ+SR) spectroscopy, reveal that this synthetic method generates fewer defects in the nanostructures compared to traditional solvothermal routes. Our interest in developing these routes to mixed-metal phosphate LiFe1−xMnxPO4 olivines is due to the higher Mn2+/3+ redox potential in comparison to the Fe2+/3+ pair. Here, single-phase LiFe1−xMnxPO4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) olivines have been prepared following a microwave-assisted approach which allows for up to 4 times faster reaction times compared to traditional solvothermal methods. Interestingly, the resulting particle morphology is dependent on the Mn content. We also examine their electrochemical performance as active electrodes in Li-ion batteries. These results present microwave routes as highly attractive for reproducible, gram-scale syntheses of high quality nanostructured electrodes which display close to theoretical capacity for the full iron phase

    Interferometry

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    The following recommended programs are reviewed: (1) infrared and optical interferometry (a ground-based and space programs); (2) compensation for the atmosphere with adaptive optics (a program for development and implementation of adaptive optics); and (3) gravitational waves (high frequency gravitational wave sources (LIGO), low frequency gravitational wave sources (LAGOS), a gravitational wave observatory program, laser gravitational wave observatory in space, and technology development during the 1990's). Prospects for international collaboration and related issues are also discussed

    Collecting, analyzing and archiving of ground based infrared solar spectra obtained from several locations

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    The infrared solar spectrum as observed from the ground under high resolution contains thousands of absorption lines. The majority of these lines are due to compounds that are present in the Earth's atmosphere. Ground based infrared solar spectra contain information concerning the composition of the atmosphere at the time the spectra were obtained. The objective of this program is to record solar spectra from various ground locations, and to analyze and archive these spectra. The analysis consists of determining, for as many of the absorption lines as possible, the molecular species responsible for the absorption, and to verify that current models of infrared transmission match the observed spectra. Archiving is an important part of the program, since a number of the features in the spectra have not been identified. At some later time, when the features are identified, it will be possible to determine the amount of that compound that was present in the atmosphere at the time the spectrum was taken

    Modeling Within-Host Effects of Drugs on Plasmodium falciparum Transmission and Prospects for Malaria Elimination

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    Achieving a theoretical foundation for malaria elimination will require a detailed understanding of the quantitative relationships between patient treatment-seeking behavior, treatment coverage, and the effects of curative therapies that also block Plasmodium parasite transmission to mosquito vectors. Here, we report a mechanistic, within-host mathematical model that uses pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data to simulate the effects of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) on Plasmodium falciparum transmission. To contextualize this model, we created a set of global maps of the fold reductions that would be necessary to reduce the malaria RC (i.e. its basic reproductive number under control) to below 1 and thus interrupt transmission. This modeling was applied to low-transmission settings, defined as having a R0<10 based on 2010 data. Our modeling predicts that treating 93–98% of symptomatic infections with an ACT within five days of fever onset would interrupt malaria transmission for ∼91% of the at-risk population of Southeast Asia and ∼74% of the global at-risk population, and lead these populations towards malaria elimination. This level of treatment coverage corresponds to an estimated 81–85% of all infected individuals in these settings. At this coverage level with ACTs, the addition of the gametocytocidal agent primaquine affords no major gains in transmission reduction. Indeed, we estimate that it would require switching ∼180 people from ACTs to ACTs plus primaquine to achieve the same transmission reduction as switching a single individual from untreated to treated with ACTs. Our model thus predicts that the addition of gametocytocidal drugs to treatment regimens provides very small population-wide benefits and that the focus of control efforts in Southeast Asia should be on increasing prompt ACT coverage. Prospects for elimination in much of Sub-Saharan Africa appear far less favorable currently, due to high rates of infection and less frequent and less rapid treatment
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