8,176 research outputs found

    The shrinking middle

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    Guy Michaels and colleagues show how new technologies are polarising the labour market, with the middle-skilled losing out mos

    Health and wellbeing in a deep plan office space

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    This research tracks public sector employees as they move from a 1960s office building into a purpose-built, environmentally sound, office accommodation. It hypothesises that in this instance the attempts to change the image and effectiveness of an organisation by changing workspace layouts has been ineffective and considers the consequent implications for individuals working in that organisation. It looks at the likely relationship between health and wellbeing of individuals and productivity. The case study is founded in the public sector but the findings are equally applicable to private sector workplaces

    Key Findings of the NTM-IMPACT Project

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    This special issue of The World Economy presents research findings from the European Commission–funded project “Assessment of the impacts of non-tariff measures (NTM)—on the competitiveness of the EU and selected trade partners” (NTM-Impact). Directed toward the EU and its trade partners, the project’s first overall objective was to collect and analyze new data on NTMs for key and representative agri-food products. This involved three components: creating a large symmetric international database on the diverse types of governmental standards and regulations used to address food safety and quality issues, constructing measures of heterogeneity among these standards and regulations; and evaluating the effects of the heterogeneity of NTMs on agri-food trade. The second overall objective was to undertake detailed case studies of NTMs among the main traders in markets for selected dairy, meat, and fruit and vegetable products. The third objective was to analyze the socioeconomic and trade impacts from private standards on a sample of low- and medium-income developing countries. Collaborators from 19 institutions in five EU and 11 non-EU countries participated in the project

    Key Findings of the NTM-IMPACT Project

    Get PDF
    This special issue of The World Economy presents research findings from the European Commission–funded project “Assessment of the impacts of non-tariff measures (NTM)—on the competitiveness of the EU and selected trade partners” (NTM-Impact). Directed toward the EU and its trade partners, the project’s first overall objective was to collect and analyze new data on NTMs for key and representative agri-food products. This involved three components: creating a large symmetric international database on the diverse types of governmental standards and regulations used to address food safety and quality issues, constructing measures of heterogeneity among these standards and regulations; and evaluating the effects of the heterogeneity of NTMs on agri-food trade. The second overall objective was to undertake detailed case studies of NTMs among the main traders in markets for selected dairy, meat, and fruit and vegetable products. The third objective was to analyze the socioeconomic and trade impacts from private standards on a sample of low- and medium-income developing countries. Collaborators from 19 institutions in five EU and 11 non-EU countries participated in the project

    Investigation of a moving-model technique for measuring ground effect

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    A ground-based testing technique is under development for the measurement of dynamic or time-dependent ground effects which may be present during aircraft approach and landing. The technique utilizes a model moving horizontally over an upwardly-inclined ground plane to simulate rate of descent. Results were obtained in the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Vortex Research Facility (VRF) for a generic 60 delta wing and for an F-18 configuration, both with and without thrust reversing, at forward speeds up to 100 ft/sec. These same models and support hardware were also tested in the LaRC 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel at identical conditions (but without rate of descent) with and without a moving-belt ground plane to obtain data for comparison

    An assessment of ground effects determined by static and dynamic testing techniques

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    A new testing technique was developed wherein the rate of descent can be included as a parameter in ground effects investigations. This technique simulates the rate of descent by horizontal motion of a model over an inclined ground board in the Langley Vortex Research Facility (VRF) During initial evaluations of the technique, dynamic ground effects data were obtained over the inclined ground board, steady state ground effects data were obtained over a flat portion of the ground board, and the results were compared to conventional static wind tunnel ground effect data both with and without a moving belt ground plane simulation. Initial testing and analysis led to the following conclusions: the moving belt ground plane had little effect on static ground effects for the configurations tested unless thrust reversers were employed; in general, rate-of-descent reduced ground effects to the point that for reversed thrust cases an expected loss of lift due to ground effects was eliminated at approach conditions; and, in general, the steady state results from the VRF matched static results obtained from the wind tunnel once the flow field stabilized over the flat portion of the ground board

    Has ICT Polarized Skill Demand? Evidence from Eleven Countries over 25 Years

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    OECD labor markets have become more "polarized" with employment in the middle of the skill distribution falling relative to the top and (in recent years) also the bottom of the skill distribution. We test the hypothesis of Autor, Levy, and Murnane (2003) that this is partly due to information and communication technologies (ICT) complementing the analytical tasks primarily performed by highly educated workers and substituting for routine tasks generally performed by middle educated workers (with little effect on low educated workers performing manual non-routine tasks). Using industry level data on the US, Japan, and nine European countries 1980-2004 we find evidence consistent with ICT-based polarization. Industries with faster growth of ICT had greater increases in relative demand for high educated workers and bigger falls in relative demand for middle educated workers. Trade openness is also associated with polarization, but this is not robust to controls for technology (like R&D). Technologies can account for up to a quarter of the growth in demand for the college educated in the quarter century since 1980.Technology, trade, skill demand, wage inequality
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