27,575 research outputs found

    Origin of Mass. Mass and Mass-Energy Equation from Classical-Mechanics Solution

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    We establish the classical wave equation for a particle formed of a massless oscillatory elementary charge generally also traveling, and the resulting electromagnetic waves, of a generally Doppler-effected angular frequency \w, in the vacuum in three dimensions. We obtain from the solutions the total energy of the particle wave to be \eng=\hbarc\w, 2\pi \hbarc being a function expressed in wave-medium parameters and identifiable as the Planck constant. In respect to the train of the waves as a whole traveling at the finite velocity of light cc, \eng=mc^2 represents thereby the translational kinetic energy of the wavetrain, m=\hbarc\w/c^2 being its inertial mass and thereby the inertial mass of the particle. Based on the solutions we also write down a set of semi-empirical equations for the particle's de Broglie wave parameters. From the standpoint of overall modern experimental indications we comment on the origin of mass implied by the solution.Comment: 13 pages, no figure. Augmented introductio

    A population of extreme mid-to-near-infrared sources: obscured AGN and dusty starbursts

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    We present a sample of mid-infrared detected sources from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) regions characterised by strong mid-IR radiation with faint near-IR and optical counterparts. These extreme mid-to-near-IR objects (EMNOs) are defined here by a flux ratio of f_15um / f_2.2um > 25. This population is not obvious in deeper small area ISO surveys, though it produces more than 20% of the observed cosmic IR background radiation (CIRB) at 15um above 1 mJy. Near-future large area deep mid-IR surveys with the Spitzer Space Telescope, however, are bound to uncover large amounts of these objects, which we argue to most likely be obscured AGN, based on SED shapes and X-ray data. Very strong dusty starbursts at z>1 may also have high mid-to-near-IR flux ratios, but using the MIR/NIR and FIR/MIR ratios these may be separated. Most of our EMNOs appear to be ULIRGs, half are also extremely red objects (ERO). A curious case of a low redshift, less luminous object with a very young stellar population is also found. We predict that the simple broad band selection method makes EMNOs a useful window into high-redshift obscured nuclear activity and its sought after relation to star-formation, in a similar way that EROs have been used to define samples of high-redshift early type galaxies.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures. A&A accepted version. Results unchanged but discussion is significantly expande

    Nonclassical microwave radiation from the dynamical Casimir effect

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    We investigate quantum correlations in microwave radiation produced by the dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting waveguide terminated and modulated by a superconducting quantum interference device. We apply nonclassicality tests and evaluate the entanglement for the predicted field states. For realistic circuit parameters, including thermal background noise, the results indicate that the produced radiation can be strictly nonclassical and can have a measurable amount of intermode entanglement. If measured experimentally, these nonclassicalilty indicators could give further evidence of the quantum nature of the dynamical Casimir radiation in these circuits.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure
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