9,968 research outputs found

    The hospital ‚Äėsuperbug‚Äô: social representations of MRSA

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    The so-called ‚Äėhospital superbug‚Äô methcillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) became a topic of media and political concern from the middle of the 1990‚Äôs. It was increasingly politicised in the period leading up to the British General Election of 2005. This study examines the meanings of MRSA that circulate in Britain by analysing newspaper coverage of the disease over a ten year period. It utilises social representations theory and contextualises MRSA within existing research on representations of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). A key pattern in the representation of EIDs is to externalise the threat they pose by linking the origin, risk and blame to ‚Äėthe other‚Äô of those who represent them. In this light the study investigates who and what MRSA is associated with and the impact that these associations have on levels of alarm and blame. Key findings are that MRSA is represented as a potentially lethal ‚Äėsuperbug‚Äô, marking the end of a ‚Äėgolden age of medicine‚Äô in which the story of the discovery of antibiotics has played such a key role. Furthermore, MRSA is constructed around an ‚Äúit could be you / me‚ÄĚ set of assumptions by way of the plethora of human interest stories that dominate the coverage. Finally, the blame for MRSA focuses not on its genesis, but rather on why it spreads. This is attributed to poor hygiene in hospitals, which is ultimately caused by mismanagement of the National Health Service and erosion of the authority and morality symbolised by the ‚Äėmatron‚Äô role. This constellation of meanings speaks to a somewhat different pattern of response to MRSA when compared to many past EIDs

    A tentative step towards healthy public policy

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    More consistent attention to implementing healthy public policy, and amassing the evidence for it, are urgently required

    Mathematical modelling of health impacts

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    Mathematical modelling is seldom applied to research of global measures of health or health inequalities mainly because of the lack of studies of interventions necessary to underpin modelling research

    Structural Nested Models and G-estimation: The Partially Realized Promise

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    Structural nested models (SNMs) and the associated method of G-estimation were first proposed by James Robins over two decades ago as approaches to modeling and estimating the joint effects of a sequence of treatments or exposures. The models and estimation methods have since been extended to dealing with a broader series of problems, and have considerable advantages over the other methods developed for estimating such joint effects. Despite these advantages, the application of these methods in applied research has been relatively infrequent; we view this as unfortunate. To remedy this, we provide an overview of the models and estimation methods as developed, primarily by Robins, over the years. We provide insight into their advantages over other methods, and consider some possible reasons for failure of the methods to be more broadly adopted, as well as possible remedies. Finally, we consider several extensions of the standard models and estimation methods.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/14-STS493 the Statistical Science (http://www.imstat.org/sts/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Power Corrections to QCD Sum Rules for Compton Scattering

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    We extend previous work on sum rules for the invariant amplitudes of pion Compton scattering by deriving a complete lowest order perturbative spectral function - and its leading non perturbative power corr ections - for a specific combination of the two helicities (H1+H2)(H_1 + H_2) of this process. Using some properties of a modified version of the Borel transform, we develop a method of calculation of the gluonic corrections which can be easily extended to other similar reactions, such as proton Compton scattering. A preliminary comparison of the new sum rule with the pion form factor sum rule is made.Comment: 24 pages in latex 5 figures not includes availiable upon request (email: [email protected]), ITP-US-93-3 preprin

    On how electronic dictionaries are really used

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    Azimuthally unidirectional transport of energy in magnetoelectric fields. Topological Lenz effect

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    Magnetic dipolar modes (MDMs) in a quasi 2D ferrite disk are microwave energy eigenstate oscillations with topologically distinct structures of rotating fields and unidirectional power flow circulations. At the first glance, this might seem to violate the law of conservation of an angular momentum, since the microwave structure with an embedded ferrite sample is mechanically fixed. However, an angular momentum is seen to be conserved if topological properties of electromagnetic fields in the entire microwave structure are taken into account. In this paper we show that due to the topological action of the azimuthally unidirectional transport of energy in a MDM resonance ferrite sample there exists the opposite topological reaction on a metal screen placed near this sample. We call this effect topological Lenz effect. The topological Lenz law is applied to opposite topological charges, one in a ferrite sample and another on a metal screen. The MDM originated near fields, the magnetoelectric (ME) fields, induce helical surface electric currents and effective charges on a metal. The fields formed by these currents and charges will oppose their cause
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