32 research outputs found

    The role of microRNAs in animal physiology and pathology

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    MicroRNAs are a class of small, evolutionarily conserved, endogenous RNAs, capable of controlling gene expression. MicroRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerases II and III, generating precursors that undergo a series of cleavage events to form mature microRNA. They play an important regulatory role in animals at the posttranscriptional levels by targeting mRNAs for direct cleavage of mRNAs or repression of mRNA translation. The main biological function of miRNA is the post-translation regulation of cells, like: proliferation and differentiation, cell death, fat metabolism, neuronal patterning and angiogenesis.  These molecules are the main regulators of biological features of economic interest, including body growth, muscle development, signaling transduction, fat deposition, and immunology. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge about miRNAs synthesis, mechanisms for regulation of the genome their functions in animals physiology and the implications associated with dysfunction and dysregulation

    Treatment of multiple myeloma patients with autologous stem cell transplantation — a fresh analysis

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    Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated with conventional chemotherapy have an average survival of approximately three years. High dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), first introduced in the mid-1980s, is now considered the standard therapy for almost all patients with multiple myeloma, because it prolongs overall survival and disease free survival. Between November 1997 and October 2006, 122 patients with MM (58 females, 64 males, median age 51.0 years [± 7.98] range: 30–66 years) were transplanted in the Department of Hematooncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation at the Medical University of Lublin: 47 patients were in complete remission or in unconfirmed complete remission, 66 patients were in partial remission, and nine had stable disease. Of these, there were 95 patients with IgG myeloma, 16 with IgA myeloma, one with IgG/IgA, one with IgM myeloma, five with non secretory type, two with solitary tumor and two with LCD myeloma. According to Durie-Salmon, 62 patients had stage III of the disease, 46 had stage II and four had stage I. Most patients (69/122) were transplanted after two or more cycles of chemotherapy, 48 patients were transplanted after one cycle of chemotherapy, one patient after surgery and rtg- -therapy and four patients had not been treated. In mobilisation procedure, the patients received a single infusion of cyclophosphamide (4–6 g/m2) or etoposide 1.6 g/m2 followed by daily administration of G-CSF until the peripheral stem cells harvest. The number of median harvest sessions was 2.0 (± 0.89) (range: 1–5). An average of 7.09 (± 33.28) ├Ś 106 CD34+ cells/kg were collected from each patient (range: 1.8–111.0 ├Ś 106/kg). Conditioning regimen consisted of high dose melphalan 60–210 mg/m2 without TBI. An average of 3.04 (± 11.59) ├Ś 106 CD34+ cells/kg were transplanted to each patient. Fatal complications occured in four patients (treatment- -related mortality = 3.2%). In all patients there was regeneration of hematopoiesis. The median number of days for recovery to ANC > 0.5 ├Ś 109/l was 13 (± 4.69) (range: 10–38) and platelets recovery to > 50 ├Ś 109/l was 25 days (± 11.65) (range: 12–45). Median time of hospitalization was 22 days (± 7.14) (range: 14–50). Patients were evaluated on day 100 after transplantation: 74.9% achieved CR and nCR, 14.3% were in PR, 5.4% had SD and 5.4% had progressed. Median of OS was 45 months (± 30.67). OS at 3-years was 84% and at 7-years 59%. Median PFS was 25 months (± 26.13). PFS at 3-years was 68%, and at 7-years was 43%. At present (November 2009) 52 patients (42%) are still alive. High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation is a valuable, well tolerated method of treatment for patients with MM that allows the achievement of long- -lasting survival. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 248–254

    Enteral nutrition in cancer patients

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    Artyku┼é przedstawia kolejn─ů cz─Ö┼Ť─ç zalece┼ä dotycz─ůcych ┼╝ywienia do- i pozajelitowego w onkologii. Przedstawione zosta┼éy wskazania do leczenia, metody interwencji i monitorowania oraz rodzaje diet. Jako metoda z wyboru, ┼╝ywienie dojelitowe powinno zawsze by─ç rozwa┼╝ane w pierwszym etapie podejmowania decyzji o leczeniu ┼╝ywieniowym. Korzystny wp┼éyw tej interwencji zosta┼é udowodniony w wielu pracach naukowych.The manuscript presents the second part of recommendations on enteral and parenteral nutrition in oncology. It describes indications, methods of intervention, types of diets and techniques for monitoring. The enteral nutrition (EN) is a method of choice for nutritional support, hence it should be always considered as the first step, whenever the latter is necessary. The beneficial effect of EN was demonstrated in many clinical studies

    Polish Recommendations on Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Oncology ÔÇö part two: enteral nutrition

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    Artyku┼é przedstawia kolejn─ů cz─Ö┼Ť─ç zalece┼ä dotycz─ůcych ┼╝ywienia do- i pozajelitowego w onkologii. Przedstawione zosta┼éy wskazania do leczenia, metody interwencji oraz monitorowania oraz rodzaje diet. Jako metoda z wyboru ┼╝ywienie dojelitowe powinno zawsze by─ç rozwa┼╝ane na pierwszym etapie podejmowania decyzji o leczeniu ┼╝ywieniowym. Korzystny wp┼éyw tej interwencji zosta┼é udowodniony w wielu pracach naukowych.The manuscript presents the next part of recommendations on enteral and parenteral nutrition in oncology. It describes indications, methods of intervention, types of diets and techniques for monitoring. The enteral nutrition (EN) is a method of choice for nutritional support, hence it should be always considered as the first step, whenever the latter is necessary. The beneficial effect of EN was demonstrated in many clinical studies

    Prognostic impact of combined fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone resistance profile in childhood acute myeloid leukemia

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    Background: The role of cellular drug resistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not yet been established. The aim of the study was the analysis of the clinical value of ex vivo drug resistance in pediatric AML. Patients and Methods: A cohort of 90 children with de novo AML were assayed for drug resistance profile by the 3-4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and prognostic model of in vitro drug sensitivity was analyzed. Results: Children who relapsed during follow-up showed higher in vitro resistance of leukemic blasts to most of the drugs tested, except for cytarabine, cladribine, vincristine, mercaptopurine and thioguanine. A combined in vitro drug resistance profile to fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone (FTM score) was defined and it had an independent prognostic significance for disease free survival in pediatric AML. Conclusion: The combined fludarabine, treosulfan and mitoxantrone resistance profile to possibly may be used for better stratification of children with AML or indicate the necessity for additional therapy

    MicroRNA as a Potential Therapeutic Molecule in Cancer

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    Small noncoding RNAs, as post-translational regulators of many target genes, are not only markers of neoplastic disease initiation and progression, but also markers of response to anticancer therapy. Hundreds of miRNAs have been identified as biomarkers of drug resistance, and many have demonstrated the potential to sensitize cancer cells to therapy. Their properties of modulating the response of cells to therapy have made them a promising target for overcoming drug resistance. Several methods have been developed for the delivery of miRNAs to cancer cells, including introducing synthetic miRNA mimics, DNA plasmids containing miRNAs, and small molecules that epigenetically alter endogenous miRNA expression. The results of studies in animal models and preclinical studies for solid cancers and hematological malignancies have confirmed the effectiveness of treatment protocols using microRNA. Nevertheless, the use of miRNAs in anticancer therapy is not without limitations, including the development of a stable nanoconstruct, delivery method choices, and biodistribution. The aim of this review was to summarize the role of miRNAs in cancer treatment and to present new therapeutic concepts for these molecules. Supporting anticancer therapy with microRNA molecules has been verified in numerous clinical trials, which shows great potential in the treatment of cancer
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