48 research outputs found

    Coupling motion of colloidal particles in quasi-twodimensional confinement

    Get PDF
    The Brownian motion of colloidal particles in quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) confinement displays a distinct kinetic character from that in bulk. Here we experimentally report dynamic coupling motion of Brownian particles in a relatively long process (∼100 h), which displays a quasi-equilibrium state in the q2D system. In the quasi-equilibrium state, the q2D confinement results in the coupling of particle motions, which slowly damps the motion and interaction of particles until the final equilibrium state is reached. The process of approaching the equilibrium is a random relaxation of a many-body interaction system of Brownian particles. As the relaxation proceeds for ∼100 h, the system reaches the equilibrium state in which the energy gained by the particles from the stochastic collision in the whole system is counteracted by the dissipative energy resulting from the collision. The relaxation time of this stochastic q2D system is 17.7 h. The theory is developed to explain coupling motions of Brownian particles in q2D confinement

    Discovery and regulation of chiral magnetic solitons: Exact solution from Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation

    Full text link
    The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation has emerged as a fundamental and indispensable framework within the realm of magnetism. However, solving the LLG equation, encompassing full nonlinearity amidst intricate complexities, presents formidable challenges. In this context, we develop a precise mapping through geometric representation, establishing a direct linkage between the LLG equation and an integrable generalized nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation. This novel mapping provides accessibility towards acquiring a great number of exact spatiotemporal solutions. Notably, exact chiral magnetic solitons, critical for stability and controllability in propagation with and without damping effects are discovered. Our formulation provides exact solutions for the long-standing fully nonlinear problem, facilitating practical control through spin current injection in magnetic memory applications.Comment: main text:5 pages, 4 figures, supplementary materials:5 pages, 2 figure

    Onset of nonlinear electroosmotic flow under AC electric field

    Full text link
    Nonlinearity of electroosmotic flows (EOFs) is ubiquitous and plays a crucial role in the mass and energy transfer in ion transport, specimen mixing, electrochemistry reaction, and electric energy storage and utilizing. When and how the transition from a linear regime to a nonlinear one is essential for understanding, prohibiting or utilizing nonlinear EOF. However, suffers the lacking of reliable experimental instruments with high spatial and temporal resolutions, the investigation of the onset of nonlinear EOF still stays in theory. Herein, we experimentally studied the velocity fluctuations of EOFs driven by AC electric field via ultra-sensitive fluorescent blinking tricks. The linear and nonlinear AC EOFs are successfully identified from both the time trace and energy spectra of velocity fluctuations. The critical electric field (EA,CE_{A,C}) separating the two statuses is determined and is discovered by defining a generalized scaling law with respect to the convection velocity (UU) and AC frequency (fff_f) as EA,CE_{A,C}~ff0.480.027U{f_f}^{0.48-0.027U}. The universal control parameters are determined with surprising accuracy for governing the status of AC EOFs. We hope the current investigation could be essential in the development of both theory and applications of nonlinear EOF

    A fluidic platform for mobility evaluation of zebrafish with gene deficiency

    Get PDF
    IntroductionZebrafish is a suitable animal model for molecular genetic tests and drug discovery due to its characteristics including optical transparency, genetic manipulability, genetic similarity to humans, and cost-effectiveness. Mobility of the zebrafish reflects pathological conditions leading to brain disorders, disrupted motor functions, and sensitivity to environmental challenges. However, it remains technologically challenging to quantitively assess zebrafish's mobility in a flowing environment and simultaneously monitor cellular behavior in vivo.MethodsWe herein developed a facile fluidic device using mechanical vibration to controllably generate various flow patterns in a droplet housing single zebrafish, which mimics its dynamically flowing habitats.ResultsWe observe that in the four recirculating flow patterns, there are two equilibrium stagnation positions for zebrafish constrained in the droplet, i.e., the “source” with the outward flow and the “sink” with the inward flow. Wild-type zebrafish, whose mobility remains intact, tend to swim against the flow and fight to stay at the source point. A slight deviation from streamline leads to an increased torque pushing the zebrafish further away, whereas zebrafish with motor neuron dysfunction caused by lipin-1 deficiency are forced to stay in the “sink,” where both their head and tail align with the flow direction. Deviation angle from the source point can, therefore, be used to quantify the mobility of zebrafish under flowing environmental conditions. Moreover, in a droplet of comparable size, single zebrafish can be effectively restrained for high-resolution imaging.ConclusionUsing the proposed methodology, zebrafish mobility reflecting pathological symptoms can be quantitively investigated and directly linked to cellular behavior in vivo

    Label-free visualization of carbapenemase activity in living bacteria

    Get PDF
    Evaluating enzyme activity intracellularly on natural substrates is a significant experimental challenge in biomedical research. We report a label‐free method for real‐time monitoring of the catalytic behavior of class A, B, and D carbapenemases in live bacteria based on measurement of heat changes. By this means, novel biphasic kinetics for class D OXA‐48 with imipenem as substrate is revealed, providing a new approach to detect OXA‐48‐like producers. This in‐cell calorimetry approach offers major advantages in the rapid screening (10 min) of carbapenemase‐producing Enterobacteriaceae from 142 clinical bacterial isolates, with superior sensitivity (97 %) and excellent specificity (100 %) compared to conventional methods. As a general, label‐free method for the study of living cells, this protocol has potential for application to a wider range and variety of cellular components and physiological processes

    Coupling motion of colloidal particles in quasi-twodimensional confinement

    No full text
    The Brownian motion of colloidal particles in quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) confinement displays a distinct kinetic character from that in bulk. Here we experimentally report dynamic coupling motion of Brownian particles in a relatively long process (∼100 h), which displays a quasi-equilibrium state in the q2D system. In the quasi-equilibrium state, the q2D confinement results in the coupling of particle motions, which slowly damps the motion and interaction of particles until the final equilibrium state is reached. The process of approaching the equilibrium is a random relaxation of a many-body interaction system of Brownian particles. As the relaxation proceeds for ∼100 h, the system reaches the equilibrium state in which the energy gained by the particles from the stochastic collision in the whole system is counteracted by the dissipative energy resulting from the collision. The relaxation time of this stochastic q2D system is 17.7 h. The theory is developed to explain coupling motions of Brownian particles in q2D confinement

    Coupling motion of colloidal particles in quasi-twodimensional confinement

    Get PDF
    The Brownian motion of colloidal particles in quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) confinement displays a distinct kinetic character from that in bulk. Here we experimentally report dynamic coupling motion of Brownian particles in a relatively long process (∼100 h), which displays a quasi-equilibrium state in the q2D system. In the quasi-equilibrium state, the q2D confinement results in the coupling of particle motions, which slowly damps the motion and interaction of particles until the final equilibrium state is reached. The process of approaching the equilibrium is a random relaxation of a many-body interaction system of Brownian particles. As the relaxation proceeds for ∼100 h, the system reaches the equilibrium state in which the energy gained by the particles from the stochastic collision in the whole system is counteracted by the dissipative energy resulting from the collision. The relaxation time of this stochastic q2D system is 17.7 h. The theory is developed to explain coupling motions of Brownian particles in q2D confinement

    Formation of Circular Crack Pattern in Deposition Self-Assembled by Drying Nanoparticle Suspension

    No full text
    Curved cracks widely exist in nanoparticle (NP) deposition produced by drying colloidal suspension. Circular cracks, for example, initiate and propagate along a circular trajectory. One feasible theoretical explanation of a circular crack is the Xia-Hutchinson model, in which a preexisting track (flaw loop) in the film is necessary for initiating and propagating the crack on the circular path. Here, we report the first experimental evidence of dried deposition to support this model. Our results indicate that cracks along the circular trajectory can surprisingly “pass” across a 180 μm air gap. Moreover, two arc-path cracks originate in different areas and propagate to meet, forming a circular trajectory. These unexpected crack initiation and propagation indicate that the crack propagates alone the “preformed” track, experimentally confirming the hypothesis proposed by the Xia–Hutchinson model. The transition of the circular crack to a radial one indicates that the deposition microstructure is the dominant factor for the crack formation

    Formation of Circular Crack Pattern in Deposition Self-Assembled by Drying Nanoparticle Suspension

    No full text
    Curved cracks widely exist in nanoparticle (NP) deposition produced by drying colloidal suspension. Circular cracks, for example, initiate and propagate along a circular trajectory. One feasible theoretical explanation of a circular crack is the Xia-Hutchinson model, in which a preexisting track (flaw loop) in the film is necessary for initiating and propagating the crack on the circular path. Here, we report the first experimental evidence of dried deposition to support this model. Our results indicate that cracks along the circular trajectory can surprisingly “pass” across a 180 μm air gap. Moreover, two arc-path cracks originate in different areas and propagate to meet, forming a circular trajectory. These unexpected crack initiation and propagation indicate that the crack propagates alone the “preformed” track, experimentally confirming the hypothesis proposed by the Xia–Hutchinson model. The transition of the circular crack to a radial one indicates that the deposition microstructure is the dominant factor for the crack formation
    corecore