146 research outputs found

    Some Introductory Notes on the Development and Characteristics of Sabah Malay

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    This is a preliminary description of the Malay variety used as a lingua franca in the Malaysian state of Sabah at the northernmost top of Borneo. The paper discusses a number of common linguistic features that distinguish Sabah Malay from other Malay varieties and analyses these features from a historical linguistic perspective. While it is argued that Sabah Malay has a close historical relation with other Malay dialects spoken in Borneo, especially Brunei Malay, the vernacular is also influenced phonologically and lexically by Sabah\u27s indigenous and immigrant speech communities. Words and sentences recorded or elicited during fieldwork in various parts of Sabah illustrate these points

    Multi-wavelength Stellar Polarimetry of the Filamentary Cloud IC5146: I. Dust Properties

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    We present optical and near-infrared stellar polarization observations toward the dark filamentary clouds associated with IC5146. The data allow us to investigate the dust properties (this paper) and the magnetic field structure (Paper II). A total of 2022 background stars were detected in RcR_{c}-, ii'-, HH-, and/or KK-bands to AV25A_V \lesssim 25 mag. The ratio of the polarization percentage at different wavelengths provides an estimate of λmax\lambda_{max}, the wavelength of peak polarization, which is an indicator of the small-size cutoff of the grain size distribution. The grain size distribution seems to significantly change at AVA_V \sim 3 mag, where both the average and dispersion of PRc/PHP_{R_c}/P_{H} decrease. In addition, we found λmax\lambda_{max} \sim 0.6-0.9 μ\mum for AV>2.5A_V>2.5 mag, which is larger than the \sim 0.55 μ\mum in the general ISM, suggesting that grain growth has already started in low AVA_V regions. Our data also reveal that polarization efficiency (PE Pλ/AV\equiv P_{\lambda}/A_V) decreases with AVA_V as a power-law in RcR_c-, ii'-, and KK-bands with indices of -0.71±\pm0.10, -1.23±\pm0.10 and -0.53±\pm0.09. However, HH-band data show a power index change; the PE varies with AVA_V steeply (index of -0.95±\pm0.30) when AV<2.88±0.67A_V < 2.88\pm0.67 mag but softly (index of -0.25±\pm0.06) for greater AVA_V values. The soft decay of PE in high AVA_V regions is consistent with the Radiative Aligned Torque model, suggesting that our data trace the magnetic field to AV20A_V \sim 20 mag. Furthermore, the breakpoint found in HH-band is similar to the AVA_V where we found the PRc/PHP_{R_c}/P_{H} dispersion significantly decreased. Therefore, the flat PE-AVA_V in high AVA_V regions implies that the power index changes result from additional grain growth.Comment: 31 pages, 17 figures, and 3 tables; accepted for publication in Ap

    The definition of perfect and imperfect SD repeats.

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    <p>The TRs sequence “SDSDSD” was defined as a perfect consensus and an imperfect consensus was defined by the repeat contains 1–3 residues which did not follow the consensus “SDSDSD” sequence. Both perfect consensus and imperfect consensus repeats were counted as SD repeats.</p

    The 5′ recombination sites in SD repeat regions of different variants.

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    A<p>: The DNA before slash is homologous sequence located at 5′ of two recombination sites of the mutant.</p>B<p>: The nucleotides at 5′ of two recombination sites are not totally homologous in this mutant.</p

    Instability of SD repeats shown by restriction enzyme analyses.

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    <p>(A) pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9 plasmid map showed locations of the restriction enzymes and sizes of different segments. (B) After 3 rounds of propagation, instability of constructs pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C1 was detected by restriction enzyme analyses. Lane 1: Uncut plasmid; Lane 2: Digested by <i>Bam</i>HI; Lane 3: Digested by <i>Bam</i>HI/<i>Sal</i>I; Lane 4: Digested by <i>Pst</i>I; Lane 5: Digested by <i>Sal</i>I; Lane 6: Digested by <i>Eco</i>RI; Lane 7: <i>Bam</i>HI restriction enzyme activity control. Plasmid PF01 digested by <i>Bam</i>HI; Lane 8: ultraRanger 1 kb DNA ladder (Kb). Arrows A and B indicated the incomplete digestion by <i>Bam</i>HI and the failed double digestion by <i>Bam</i>HI/<i>Sal</i>I, respectively. Arrow C showed the mixture of the shorter plasmid DNA. Arrow D revealed the rearrangement in the region between two <i>Pst</i>I sites. (C) The rearranged variants from the transformants of pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7 digested by <i>Pst</i>I. Lane 1: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C1 (deletion in SD repeats between SAR and rRWM). Lane 2: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C2 (deletion in SD repeats between SAR and rRWM). Lane 3: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C3 (deletion in SD repeats between SAR and rRWM). Lane 4: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C4 (deletion in SD repeats between SAR and rRWM). Lane 5: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C5 (deletion in SD repeats between SAR and rRWM). Lane 6: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C6 (deletion in SD repeats between SAR and rRWM). Lane 7: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C7 (expansion in SD repeats between SAR and rRWM). Lane 8: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C8 (deletion in SD repeats between SAR and rRWM). Lane 9: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C9 (no rearrangement). Lane10: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C10 (deletion in SD repeats between SAR and rRWM). (D) The rearranged variants from the transformants of pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7 double-digested by <i>Bam</i>HI and <i>Sal</i>I. Lane 1: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C1 (rearrangement occurred between SAR and rRWM, lost <i>Bam</i>HI site). Lane 2: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C2 (rearrangement occurred between SAR and rRWM, lost <i>Bam</i>HI site). Lane 3: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C3 (rearrangement occurred between SAR and rRWM, lost <i>Bam</i>HI site). Lane 4: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C4 (rearrangement occurred between SAR and rRWM, lost <i>Bam</i>HI site). Lane 5: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C5 (rearrangement occurred between SAR and rRWM, lost <i>Bam</i>HI site). Lane 6: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C6 (rearrangement occurred between SAR and rRWM, lost <i>Bam</i>HI site). Lane 7: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C7 (SAR segment increase, may have expansion in SD repeats of SAR). Lane 8: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C8 (deletion in SD repeats of SAR). Lane 9: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C9 (no rearrangement). Lane10: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C7.C10 (rearrangement occurred between SAR and rRWM, lost <i>Bam</i>HI site). Lane 11: ultraRanger 1 kb DNA ladder (Kb).</p

    Plasmids and their relevant features in this study.

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    A<p>: The copy numbers of the SD repeats were same for the following plasmids: pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C1 and pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C3 to pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.C10.</p

    DNA sequence characterization of <i>clfA</i> SD repeats of <i>S. aureus</i> Smith Cp and the locations of rearranged sites from 9 variants of pNZ3004-ClfA.rRWM and 1 variant of pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9.

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    <p>The number at two sides represents the nucleotide number. The perfect consensus repeats are marked in red and the imperfect consensus repeats are marked in black. The repeat right after 15 central perfect consensus repeats has only 12 nucleotides, as this arrangement makes the whole repeats maximally conform the consensus. Each rearranged site in 9 variants of pNZ3004-ClfA.rRWM was marked by the name of variants in parentheses in green, with the region between them looped out during the rearrangement. For 1 variant of pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM.C9, 5 SD repeats were added between the two arrangement sites and were not shown in the figure, marked by the name of the variant in parentheses in blue.</p

    A schematic diagram of <i>S. aureus</i> ClfA organization and the insert fragments in the constructs.

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    <p>S: the signal sequence; A: the binding domain; R: the SD repeat region; W: the wall-spanning region; M: the membrane-spanning region. ClfA.RWM: the segment RWM of ClfA from <i>S. aureus</i> Smith Cp which was cloned into pNZ3004. ClfA.SA.rRWM: the inserted portion of pNZ3004-ClfA.SA.rRWM after cloning the segment SA of ClfA from <i>S. aureus</i> Smith Cp cloned into pNZ3004-ClfA.rRWM. ClfA.SAR.rRWM: the inserted portion of pNZ3004-ClfA.SAR.rRWM after cloning the segment SAR of ClfA from <i>S. aureus</i> Smith Cp into pNZ3004-ClfA.rRWM.</p

    Additional file 1: of Non-operative anti-caries agents and dental caries increment among adults at high caries risk: a retrospective cohort study

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    STROBE Statement—Checklist of items that should be included in reports of cohort studies. (DOC 82 kb

    Primers used in this study.

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    <p>Primers used in this study.</p
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