91,892 research outputs found

    A shared position/force control methodology for teleoperation

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    A flexible and computationally efficient shared position/force control concept and its implementation in the Robot Control C Library (RCCL) are presented form the point of teleoperation. This methodology enables certain degrees of freedom to be position-controlled through real time manual inputs and the remaining degrees of freedom to be force-controlled by computer. Functionally, it is a hybrid control scheme in that certain degrees of freedom are designated to be under position control, and the remaining degrees of freedom to be under force control. However, the methodology is also a shared control scheme because some degrees of freedom can be put under manual control and the other degrees of freedom put under computer control. Unlike other hybrid control schemes, which process position and force commands independently, this scheme provides a force control loop built on top of a position control inner loop. This feature minimizes the computational burden and increases disturbance rejection. A simple implementation is achieved partly because the joint control servos that are part of most robots can be used to provide the position control inner loop. Along with this control scheme, several menus were implemented for the convenience of the user. The implemented control scheme was successfully demonstrated for the tasks of hinged-panel opening and peg-in-hole insertion

    Dynamical Image Charge Effect in Molecular Tunnel Junctions: Beyond Energy Level Alignment

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    When an electron tunnels between two metal contacts it temporarily induces an image charge (IC) in the electrodes which acts back on the tunneling electron. It is usually assumed that the IC forms instantaneously such that a static model for the image potential applies. Here we investigate how the finite IC formation time affects charge transport through a molecule suspended between two electrodes. For a single level model, an analytical treatment shows that the conductance is suppressed by a factor Z2Z^2 (compared to the static IC approximation) where ZZ is the quasiparticle renormalization factor. We show that ZZ can be expressed either in terms of the plasma frequency of the electrode or as the overlap between the ground states of the electrode with and without an electron on the molecule. First-principles GW calculations for benzene-diamine connected to gold electrodes show that the dynamical corrections can reduce the conductance by more than a factor of two.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Correlation of the earth's rotation rate and the secular change of the geomagnetic field

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    Power spectral density analysis using Burg's maximum entropy method was applied to the geomagnetic dipole field and its rate of change for the years 1901 to 1969. Both spectra indicate relative maxima at 0.015 cycles/year and its harmonics. These maxima correspond approximately to 66, 33, 22, 17, 13, 11, and 9-year spectral lines. The application of the same analysis techniques to the length-of-day (l.o.d) fluctuations for the period 1865 to 1961 reveal similar spectral characteristics. Although peaks were observed at higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency, the 22-year and 11-year lines are not attributed unambiguously to the solar magnetic cycle and the solar cycle. It is suggested that the similarity in the l.o.d fluctuations and the dipole field variations is related to the motion within the earth's fluid core during the past one hundred years

    Could the Hercules satellite be a stellar stream in the Milky Way halo?

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    We investigate the possibility that Hercules, a recently discovered Milky Way (MW) satellite, is a stellar stream in the process of formation. This hypothesis is motivated by Hercules' highly elongated shape as well as the measurement of a tentative radial velocity gradient along its body. The application of simple analytical techniques on radial velocity data of its member stars provides tight constraints on the tangential velocity of the system (v_t = -16^{+6}_{-22} km/s, relative to the Galactic Standard of Rest). Combining this with its large receding velocity (145 km/s) and distance (138 kpc) yields an orbit that would have taken Hercules to within 6^{+9}_{-2} kpc of the Galactic centre approximately 0.6 Gyr ago. This very small perigalacticon can naturally explain the violent tidal destruction of the dwarf galaxy in the MW's gravitational potential, inducing its transformation into a stellar stream.Comment: Conference proceedings of "A Universe of dwarf galaxies: Observations, Theories, Simulations" held in Lyon, France (June 14-18, 2010
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