25,731 research outputs found

    Capabilities' Substitutability and the "S" Curve of Export Diversity

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    Product diversity, which is highly important in economic systems, has been highlighted by recent studies on international trade. We found an empirical pattern, designated as the "S-shaped curve", that models the relationship between economic size (logarithmic GDP) and export diversity (the number of varieties of export products) on the detailed international trade data. As the economic size of a country begins to increase, its export diversity initially increases in an exponential manner, but overtime, this diversity growth slows and eventually reaches an upper limit. The interdependence between size and diversity takes the shape of an S-shaped curve that an be fitted by a logistic equation. To explain this phenomenon, we introduce a new parameter called "substitutability" into the list of capabilities or factors of products in the tri-partite network model (i.e., the country-capability-product model) of Hidalgo et al. As we observe, when the substitutability is zero, the model returns to Hidalgo's original model but failed to reproduce the S-shaped curve. However, in a plot of data, the data increasingly resembles an the S-shaped curve as the substitutability expands. Therefore, the diversity ceiling effect can be explained by the substitutability of different capabilities

    Performance Characterization of Multi-threaded Graph Processing Applications on Intel Many-Integrated-Core Architecture

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    Intel Xeon Phi many-integrated-core (MIC) architectures usher in a new era of terascale integration. Among emerging killer applications, parallel graph processing has been a critical technique to analyze connected data. In this paper, we empirically evaluate various computing platforms including an Intel Xeon E5 CPU, a Nvidia Geforce GTX1070 GPU and an Xeon Phi 7210 processor codenamed Knights Landing (KNL) in the domain of parallel graph processing. We show that the KNL gains encouraging performance when processing graphs, so that it can become a promising solution to accelerating multi-threaded graph applications. We further characterize the impact of KNL architectural enhancements on the performance of a state-of-the art graph framework.We have four key observations: 1 Different graph applications require distinctive numbers of threads to reach the peak performance. For the same application, various datasets need even different numbers of threads to achieve the best performance. 2 Only a few graph applications benefit from the high bandwidth MCDRAM, while others favor the low latency DDR4 DRAM. 3 Vector processing units executing AVX512 SIMD instructions on KNLs are underutilized when running the state-of-the-art graph framework. 4 The sub-NUMA cache clustering mode offering the lowest local memory access latency hurts the performance of graph benchmarks that are lack of NUMA awareness. At last, We suggest future works including system auto-tuning tools and graph framework optimizations to fully exploit the potential of KNL for parallel graph processing.Comment: published as L. Jiang, L. Chen and J. Qiu, "Performance Characterization of Multi-threaded Graph Processing Applications on Many-Integrated-Core Architecture," 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software (ISPASS), Belfast, United Kingdom, 2018, pp. 199-20