15 research outputs found

    Modelling travel time distribution and its influence over stochastic vehicle scheduling

    Get PDF
    Due to the paucity of well-established modelling approaches or well-accepted travel time distributions, the existing travel time models are often assumed to follow certain popular distributions, such as normal or lognormal, which may lead to results deviating from actual ones. This paper proposes a modelling approach for travel times using distribution fitting methods based on the data collected by Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) systems. By this proposed approach, a compound travel time model can be built, which consists of the best distribution models for the travel times in each period of a day. Applying to stochastic vehicle scheduling, the influence of different travel time models is further studied. Results show that the compound model can fit more precisely to the actual travel times under various traffic situations, whilst the on-time performance of resulting vehicle schedules can be improved. The research findings have also potential benefit for the other research based on travel time models in public transport including timetabling, service planning and reliability measurement

    Vector competence evaluation of mosquitoes for Tahyna virus PJ01 strain, a new Orthobunyavirus in China

    Get PDF
    IntroductionTahyna virus (TAHV), an arbovirus of the genus Orthobunyavirus, is a cause of human diseases and less studied worldwide. In this study, a new strain of TAHV was isolated from Aedes sp. mosquitoes collected in Panjin city, Liaoning province. However, the competent vector of TAHV in China is still unknown.MethodsThe genome of newly isolated TAHV was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis is performed. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens were orally infected with artificial virus blood meals (1:1 of virus suspension and mouse blood), the virus was detected in the midgut, ovary, salivary gland and saliva of the mosquitoes. Then, the transmission and dissemination rates, vertical transmission and horizontal transmission of the virus by the mosquitoes were assessed.ResultsPhylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus shared high similarity with TAHV and was named the TAHV PJ01 strain. After oral infection with virus blood meals, Ae. albopictus showed positive for the virus in all tested tissues with an extrinsic incubation period of 2 days and a fluctuating increasement of transmission and dissemination rates. Whereas no virus was detected in the saliva of Cx. pipiens pallens. Suckling mice bitten by infectious Ae. albopictus developed obvious neurological symptoms, including inactivity, hind-leg paralysis and difficulty turning over, when the virus titer reached 1.70×105 PFU/mL in the brain. Moreover, TAHV was detected in the eggs, larvae and adults of F1 offspring of Ae. albopictus.DiscussionAe. albopictus is an efficient vector to transmit TAHV but Cx. pipiens pallens is not. Ae. albopictus is also a reservoir host that transmits the virus vertically, which further increases the risk of outbreaks. This study has important epidemiological implications for the surveillance of pathogenic viruses in China and guiding comprehensive vector control strategies to counteract potential outbreaks in future

    Review: optimized particle filtering strategies for high-accuracy state of charge estimation of LIBs.

    No full text
    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are used as energy storage systems due to their high efficiency. State of charge (SOC) estimation is one of the key functions of the battery management system (BMS). Accurate SOC estimation helps to determine the driving range and effective energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). However, due to complex electrochemical reactions and nonlinear battery characteristics, accurate SOC estimation is challenging. Therefore, this review examines the existing methods for estimating the SOC of LIBs and analyzes their respective advantages and disadvantages. Subsequently, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the methods for constructing LIB models is conducted from various aspects such as applicability and accuracy. Finally, the advantages of particle filtering (PF) over the Kalman filter (KF) series algorithm for estimating SOC are summarized, and various improved PF algorithms for estimating the SOC of LIBs are compared and discussed. Additionally, this review provides corresponding suggestions for researchers in the battery field

    Estimation of Forest Fire Burned Area by Distinguishing Non-Photosynthetic and Photosynthetic Vegetation Using Triangular Space Method

    No full text
    The forest fire burned area is one of the most basic factors used to describe forest fires and plays a vital role in damage assessment. The development of the NSSI-NDVI vegetation index triangular space method enables simultaneous calculation of the flammable non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), combustible photosynthetic vegetation (PV), and incombustible bare soil (BS) fractional cover in forest areas. This can be used to compensate for the calculation method that was based on NDVI vegetation index only by comparing vegetation cover before and after forest fires, with the omission of the NPV burned area. To this end, the NSSI-NDVI triangular space shape consistency before and after forest fires was elucidated through combustion and ash wetting experiments. In addition, the feasibility of the NSSI-NDVI triangular space method for the accurate calculation of the post-fire vegetation damage area was verified. Finally, the applicability and accuracy of this research method were verified based on 10 m spatial resolution satellite hyperspectral images from before and after the forest fire in Lushan, Sichuan Province, China. The NSSI-NDVI triangular space method was used to calculate the PV, NPV, and BS coverage simultaneously, and component transformation was used to calculate the burned area and burned site separately

    A novel genetic marginalized particle filter method for state of charge and state of energy estimation adaptive to multi-temperature conditions of lithium-ion batteries.

    No full text
    Power lithium-ion batteries are widely used in various fields, the battery management system (BMS) is the main object of battery energy management and safety monitoring, so the accurate collaboration of state of charge (SoC) and state of energy (SoE) is estimated to be essential for the BMS system. In this work, a novel genetic marginal particle filter (GMPF) algorithm to estimate SoC and SoE accurately. The forgetting factor recursive least square (FFRLS) algorithm is used to identify the second-order Thevenin equivalent model parameter, and the genetic algorithm is used to improve the re-sampling process of the traditional particle filtering (PF) algorithm, according to the Rao-Blackwell theory in statistical science, the marginalization of part of the linear state variables during the calculation of particle filtering, the distribution of the post-test is similar to a single Gaussian distribution. The GMPF algorithm is verified under the conditions of the hybrid pulse power characteristic (HPPC) and the Beijing bus dynamic stress test (BBDST) with 15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C respectively, and experimental results show that the improved GMPF algorithm can effectively realize the collaborative estimation of the SoC and SoE of power lithium-ion batteries. The mean absolute error of SoC and SoE estimation is always less than 1.56 %, the root-mean-square error is always less than 1.58 %. And the GMPF algorithm is suitable for temperature environments of 15 °C to 35 °C

    Photoionization cross section measurements of the excited states of cobalt in the near-threshold region

    No full text
    We present measurements of photoionization cross-sections of the excited states of cobalt using a two-color, two-step resonance ionization technique in conjunction with a molecular beam time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The atoms were produced by the laser vaporization of a cobalt rod, coupled with a supersonic gas jet. The absolute photoionization cross-sections at threshold and near-threshold regions (0-1.2 eV) were measured, and the measured values ranged from 4.2±0.7 Mb to 10.5±1.8 Mb. The lifetimes of four odd parity energy levels are reported for the first time

    Dietary Supplemental Chromium Yeast Improved the Antioxidant Capacity, Immunity and Liver Health in Broilers under High Stocking Density

    No full text
    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of yeast chromium on growth performance, organ index, antioxidant capacity, immune performance and liver health of broilers under high stocking density. A total of 684 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were selected and fed a common diet from 1 to 22 days of age. At the end of 22 days, broilers with similar weight were randomly divided into six treatments, with six replications in each treatment. The broilers in control groups were fed with a control diet and raised at low stocking density of broilers (14 broilers/m2, LSD) and high stocking density (20 broilers/m2, HSD). The broilers in treatment groups were fed with diets supplemented with 200, 400, 800 and 1600 µg Cr/kg chromium yeast (Cr-yeast) under HSD, respectively. The experimental period was 23~42 days. Compared with the LSD group, the HSD group significantly decreased the liver index (ratio of liver weight to live weight of broilers) of broilers (p p p p p p p p p p p p p < 0.05). In summary, Cr-yeast can improve the antioxidant capacity and immune traits, and liver health of broilers under HSD. Based on the results of the linear regression analysis, the optimal supplementation of Cr-yeast in antioxidant capacity, immunity ability and liver health were at the range of 425.00–665.00, 319.30–961.00, and 800.00–1531.60 µg Cr/kg, respectively

    Table_1_Vector competence evaluation of mosquitoes for Tahyna virus PJ01 strain, a new Orthobunyavirus in China.DOCX

    No full text
    IntroductionTahyna virus (TAHV), an arbovirus of the genus Orthobunyavirus, is a cause of human diseases and less studied worldwide. In this study, a new strain of TAHV was isolated from Aedes sp. mosquitoes collected in Panjin city, Liaoning province. However, the competent vector of TAHV in China is still unknown.MethodsThe genome of newly isolated TAHV was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis is performed. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens were orally infected with artificial virus blood meals (1:1 of virus suspension and mouse blood), the virus was detected in the midgut, ovary, salivary gland and saliva of the mosquitoes. Then, the transmission and dissemination rates, vertical transmission and horizontal transmission of the virus by the mosquitoes were assessed.ResultsPhylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus shared high similarity with TAHV and was named the TAHV PJ01 strain. After oral infection with virus blood meals, Ae. albopictus showed positive for the virus in all tested tissues with an extrinsic incubation period of 2 days and a fluctuating increasement of transmission and dissemination rates. Whereas no virus was detected in the saliva of Cx. pipiens pallens. Suckling mice bitten by infectious Ae. albopictus developed obvious neurological symptoms, including inactivity, hind-leg paralysis and difficulty turning over, when the virus titer reached 1.70×105 PFU/mL in the brain. Moreover, TAHV was detected in the eggs, larvae and adults of F1 offspring of Ae. albopictus.DiscussionAe. albopictus is an efficient vector to transmit TAHV but Cx. pipiens pallens is not. Ae. albopictus is also a reservoir host that transmits the virus vertically, which further increases the risk of outbreaks. This study has important epidemiological implications for the surveillance of pathogenic viruses in China and guiding comprehensive vector control strategies to counteract potential outbreaks in future.</p
    corecore