871 research outputs found

    Carbapenem and cefoxitin resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains associated with porin OmpK36 loss and DHA-1 β-lactamase production

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    Clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strains are being increased worldwide. Five pan-resistant K. pneumoniae strains have been isolated from respiratory and ICU wards in a Chinese hospital, and reveal strong resistance to all ÎČ-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Totally 27 ÎČ-lactamase genes and 2 membrane pore protein (porin) genes in 5 K. pneumoniae strains were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results indicated that all of 5 K. pneumoniae strains carried blaTEM-1 and blaDHA-1 genes, as well as base deletion and mutation of OmpK35 or OmpK36 genes. Compared with carbapenem-sensitive isolates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the resistant isolates markedly lacked the protein band of 34-40 kDa, which might be the outer membrane proteins of OmpK36 according to the electrophoresis mobility. In addition, the conjugation test was confirmed that blaDHA-1 mediated by plasmids could be transferred between resistant and sensitive strains. When reserpine (30 ”g/mL) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) (50 ”g/mL) were added in imipenem and meropenem, the MICs had no change against K. pneumoniae strains. These results suggest that both DHA-1 ÎČ-lactamase and loss or deficiency of porin OmpK36 may be the main reason for the cefoxitin and carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae strains in our hospital

    Orexigenic Hormone Ghrelin Attenuates Local and Remote Organ Injury after Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion

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    Gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious condition in intensive care patients. Activation of immune cells adjacent to the huge endothelial cell surface area of the intestinal microvasculature produces initially local and then systemic inflammatory responses. Stimulation of the vagus nerve can rapidly attenuate systemic inflammatory responses through inhibiting the activation of macrophages and endothelial cells. Ghrelin, a novel orexigenic hormone, is produced predominately in the gastrointestinal system. Ghrelin receptors are expressed at a high density in the dorsal vagal complex of the brain stem. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by the novel gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin, after gut I/R.Gut ischemia was induced by placing a microvascular clip across the superior mesenteric artery for 90 min in male adult rats. Our results showed that ghrelin levels were significantly reduced after gut I/R and that ghrelin administration inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine release, reduced neutrophil infiltration, ameliorated intestinal barrier dysfunction, attenuated organ injury, and improved survival after gut I/R. Administration of a specific ghrelin receptor antagonist worsened gut I/R-induced organ injury and mortality. To determine whether ghrelin's beneficial effects after gut I/R require the intact vagus nerve, vagotomy was performed in sham and gut I/R animals immediately prior to the induction of gut ischemia. Our result showed that vagotomy completely eliminated ghrelin's beneficial effect after gut I/R. To further confirm that ghrelin's beneficial effects after gut I/R are mediated through the central nervous system, intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin was performed at the beginning of reperfusion after 90-min gut ischemia. Our result showed that intracerebroventricular injection of ghrelin also protected the rats from gut I/R injury.These findings suggest that ghrelin attenuates excessive inflammation and reduces organ injury after gut I/R through activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Progress in Antarctic marine geophysical research by the Chinese Polar Program

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    Marine geophysical survey by the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) began with the first science expedition in 1984/1985, although only four cruises were performed in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula between then and 1991/1992. After a 20 year hiatus, Antarctic marine geophysical research was relaunched by the Chinese Polar Environmental Comprehensive Investigation and Assessment Programs (known simply as the Chinese Polar Program) in 2011/2012. Integrated geophysical surveys have been carried out annually since, in Prydz Bay and the Ross Sea. During the last 5 years, we have acquired about 5500 km of bathymetric, gravimetric, and magnetic lines; more than 1800 km of seismic reflection lines; and data from several heat flow and Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) stations. This work has deepened understandings of geophysical features and their implications for geological tectonics and glacial history in Antarctica and its surrounding seas. Compiled Antarctic Bouguer and Airy isostatic gravity anomalies show different features of tectonics between the East Antarctic stability and West Antarctic activity. Calculated magnetic anomalies, heat flow anomalies and lithospheric anisotropy offshore of Prydz Bay may imply high heat capacity of mantle shielded by the continental shelf lithosphere, but high heat dissipation of mantle due to the Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana along the continent and ocean transition (COT), where large sediment ridges would be brought about by the Oligocene ice sheet retreat and would enlarge free-air gravity anomalies. In the western Ross Sea, CHINARE seismic profiles indicate northern termination of the Terror Rift and deposition time of the grounding zone wedge in the northern JOIDES Basin

    Characteristics of fine particulate matter and its sources in an industrialized coastal city, Ningbo, Yangtze River Delta, China

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    Chemical information is essential in understanding the characteristics of airborne particles, and effectively controlling airborne particulate matter pollution, but it remains unclear in some regions due to the scarcity of measurement data. In the present study, 92 daily PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≀ 2.5 ÎŒm) samples as well as historical observation data of air pollutants were collected in urban Ningbo, one of important industrial cities in the coastal area of the Yangtze River Delta, China in autumn and winter (from Nov. 2014 to Feb. 2015). Various chemical species in PM2.5 were determined including water soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon and elements. Positive matrix factorization model, cluster analysis of back trajectories, potential source contribution function (PSCF) model and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) model were used for identifying sources, apportioning contributions from each source and tracking potential areas of sources. The results showed the PM2.5 concentration has been reducing; nonetheless, the concentrations of PM2.5 are still much higher than the World Health Organization guideline with high PM2.5 concentrations observed in autumn and winter for the past few years. During the sampling period, the average PM2.5 mass concentration was 77 ÎŒg/m3 with the major components of OC, NO3−, SO42 −, NH4+ and EC, accounting for 24.7, 18.8, 14.5, 11.8 and 6.4% in the total mass concentration, respectively. When the aerosol pollution got worse during the sampling period, the NO3−, SO42 − and NH4+ concentrations increased accordingly and NO3− appeared to increase at fastest rate. SO42 − transported from industrial areas led to slight difference in spatial distribution of SO42 − in Ningbo. More secondary organic carbon was formed and the enrichment factor values of Cu, Ag, Cd, Sn and Pb increased with the degradation of air quality. Ten types of sources were identified for PM2.5 in the autumn and winter of Ningbo, which are metallurgical industry, biomass burning and waste incineration, manufacturing related with Mo, chlor-alkli chemical industry, oil combustion, vehicular emission, secondary source, soil dust, road dust and manufacturing related with Cr, accounting for 9.4, 4.8, 9.4, 7.6, 8.1, 18.7, 27.6, 2, 7.1 and 5.2% of the total sources, respectively. There were five groups of air parcels arriving in Ningbo, of which inland air masses originating from Shandong province were associated with the highest PM2.5 concentrations. Despite the slight differences, it was obvious that the north of Jiangxi, east of Anhui, west of Jiangsu, south of Shandong were identified as major potential sources-areas of SO42 −, NO3−, NH4+, Cl−, OC and EC by both PSCF and CWT models

    Pivotal Role of the α2A-Adrenoceptor in Producing Inflammation and Organ Injury in a Rat Model of Sepsis

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    Background: Norepinephrine (NE) modulates the responsiveness of macrophages to proinflammatory stimuli through the activation of adrenergic receptors (ARs). Being part of the stress response, early increases of NE in sepsis sustain adverse systemic inflammatory responses. The intestine is an important source of NE release in the early stage of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in rats, which then stimulates TNF-a production in Kupffer cells (KCs) through the activation of the a2-AR. It is important to know which of the three a2-AR subtypes (i.e., a2A, a2B or a2C) is responsible for the upregulation of TNF-a production. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of a2A-AR in this process. Methodology/Principal Findings: Adult male rats underwent CLP and KCs were isolated 2 h later. Gene expression of a2A-AR was determined. In additional experiments, cultured KCs were incubated with NE with or without BRL-44408 maleate, a specific a2A-AR antagonist, and intraportal infusion of NE for 2 h with or without BRL-44408 maleate was carried out in normal animals. Finally, the impact of a2A-AR activation by NE was investigated under inflammatory conditions (i.e., endotoxemia and CLP). Gene expression of the a2A-AR subtype was significantly upregulated after CLP. NE increased the release of TNF-a in cultured KCs, which was specifically inhibited by the a2A-AR antagonist BRL-44408. Equally, intraportal NE infusion increased TNF-a gene expression in KCs and plasma TNF-a which was also abrogated by co-administration of BRL-44408. NE also potentiated LPS-induced TNF-a release via the a2A-AR in vitro and in vivo. This potentiation of TNF-a release by NE was mediated through the a2A-AR coupled Gai protein and the activation of the p38 MAP kinase. Treatment of septic animals with BRL-44408 suppressed TNF-a, prevented multiple organ injury and significantly improved survival from 45% to 75%. Conclusions/Significance: Our novel finding is that hyperresponsiveness to a2-AR stimulation observed in sepsis is primarily due to an increase in a2A-AR expression in KCs. This appears to be in part responsible for the increased proinflammatory response and ensuing organ injury in sepsis. These findings provide important feasibility information for further developing the a2A-AR antagonist as a new therapy for sepsis

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function ðð„with constraintsð ð ð„ „ ðandðŽð„ = ð. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Search for heavy resonances decaying to two Higgs bosons in final states containing four b quarks