691 research outputs found

    The potential demand for and strategic use of an HIV-1 vaccine in Southern India

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    Even a modestly effective HIV-1 vaccine would be highly useful in India and could avoid millions of deaths. How should such a vaccine be introduced? Based on evidence of adoption of other vaccines in India, current levels of spending on them and coverage of prevention programs targeting both high- and low-risk groups, Seshadri, Subramaniyam, and Jha assess the potential demand for and strategic use of an HIV-1 vaccine in the four southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. The authors also discuss potential strategies for delivery of the vaccine, prioritization for vaccination, and the political economyof such a vaccine in India. Assuming a vaccine cost of 10adoseandincludingestimateddeliverycosts,thetotalcostofvaccinating21.6millionadolescents1114yearsofageand1percentofadultswouldbeRs.12.25billion(US10 a dose and including estimated delivery costs, the total cost of vaccinating 21.6 million adolescents 11-14 years of age and 1 percent of adults would be Rs. 12.25 billion (US 245 million). To maintain the vaccination rate in the 11-14 year old cohort, an additional 6.77 million in that age range would have to be vaccinated each year, at a vaccine cost of Rs. 3.39 billion (US$ 67.5 million). An HIV-1 vaccine will greatly reduce HIV/AIDS in India, but it will not be a panacea. There will be a continued need for effective prevention programs to guard against behavior reversals or an imperfect vaccine. Key inputs for prevention, immunization, and treatment programs such as identification of various groups that could be immunized (vulnerable groups or general populations), strengthened surveillance, capacity building, operations research, and evaluation at local levels will continue to require intensive support.Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Public Health Promotion,HIV AIDS,Disease Control&Prevention,Early Child and Children's Health,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Adolescent Health,HIV AIDS,Primary Education,Early Child and Children's Health

    Discussion of work-plans and policy engagement strategies for India

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    The presentation reviews research findings for tobacco usage and control in India. It identifies strategies to engage with stakeholders and policy makers. The team is working with the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Women and Family Planning in ongoing studies. It is strengthening existing relationships and new associations with State finance ministries, Health research centers, Civil Society organizations, and advocacy groups for states as well as at the federal level

    What makes an eLife paper in epidemiology and global health?

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    The best papers provide evidence that can be used to make changes that improve the health and lives of people around the world

    A Halotolerant Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis HSW-16 Augments Induced Systemic Tolerance to Salt Stress in Wheat Plant (Triticum aestivum)

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    Certain plant growth promoting bacteria can protect associated plants from harmful effects of salinity. We report the isolation and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase bacterium Bacillus licheniformis HSW-16 capable of ameliorating salt (NaCl) stress in wheat plants. The bacterium was isolated from water of Sambhar salt lake, Rajasthan, India. The presence of ACC deaminase activity was confirmed by enzyme assay and analysis of AcdS gene, a structural gene for ACC deaminase. Inoculation of B. licheniformis HSW-16 protected wheat plants from growth inhibition caused by NaCl and increased plant growth (6-38%) in terms of root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight. Ionic analysis of plant samples showed that the bacterial inoculation decreased accumulation of Na+ content (51%), and increased K+ (68%), and Ca2+ content (32%) in plants at different concentration of NaCl. It suggested that bacterial inoculation protected plants from the effect of NaCl by decreasing level of Na+ in plants. Production of exopolysaccharide by the B. licheniformis HSW-16 can also protect from Na+ by binding this ion. Moreover, application of test isolate resulted in an increase in certain osmolytes such as total soluble sugar, total protein content and a decrease in malondialdehyde content, illustrating their role in the protection of plants. The ability of B. licheniformis HSW-16 to colonize plant root surface was examined by staining the bacterium with acridine orange followed by fluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA fingerprinting analysis. These results suggested that B. licheniformis HSW-16 could be used as a bioinoculant to improve the productivity of plants growing under salt stress

    Death and taxes : global effects of smoking, of quitting, and of taxing tobacco

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    The presentation shows world mortality trends related to tobacco use (1970-2010) and trends in risk of death for various countries across the globe. It compares other chronic diseases with tobacco use. A tripling of excise tax on tobacco in every country would reduce consumption by 1/3 and avoid approximately 200M deaths

    Socioeconomic Differences in the Impact of Smoking Tobacco and Alcohol Prices on Smoking in India

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    The threat posed by smoking to health in India is severe. Already 1 in 5 of all adult male deaths and 1 in 20 of all adult female deaths at ages 30-69 are due to smoking and India will soon have 1 million smoking deaths a year. Increasing tobacco prices has been found to be the single most effective method to reduce smoking. Yet, bidis, the most common form of smoked tobacco in India, are largely untaxed, while cigarettes are taxed at about 40% of retail price, well below the 65–80% rate noted by the World Bank in countries with effective tobacco control policies. Moreover, low and stagnant tax rates have occurred in a period in which all tobacco products have become more affordable with income growth. First, we use data from the most recent three consecutive quinquennial National Sample Survey (NSS) rounds (NSS 50, 55 and 61 conducted in 1993/94, 1999/00 and 200/05) and a two-equation system of budget shares and unit values that attempts to correct for quality and measurement error. Second, we pool data from the most recent nine rounds of NSS (NSS 55-57, 59-64, conducted between 1999/00 to 2007/08). Our analyses of single and repeated cross-sections yield own-price elasticity for bidis that are roughly in keeping with existing evidence. We find that a 10% increase in bidi prices would reduce the demand for bidis by about 6 to 9.5%. We find, however, that own-price elasticity for cigarettes in India is substantially larger than previously thought. Our estimates suggest that cigarette users are at least as responsive as bidi users to price changes. On the whole, our analyses suggest that low SES households are likely more responsive to price changes than high SES households. Our analyses also uncovers important and policy-relevant cross-prices effects. Findings from this study provide additional evidence of the effectiveness of tobacco prices at reducing tobacco use.

    The Future of Disease Control PrioritiesComment on “Disease Control Priorities Third Edition Is Published: A Theory of Change Is Needed for Translating Evidence to Health Policy”

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    The Disease Control Priorities (DCP) project has substantially influenced national and global health priorities since 1993. DCP’s basic framework involves identification of disease burdens based on premature deaths and disability and application of the most cost-effective interventions to the largest burdens, taking into account local feasibility. The future impact of DCP will need to take into account growing national wealth and needs for endogenous capacity to design and implement evidence-based interventions, the rapid emergence of non-communicable disease (NCD), and the universal health coverage (UHC) agenda. This in turn requires three improvements to the DCP framework: greater local capacity, supported by a global effort to cost health interventions, stronger national and international technical capacity and networks, and the use of direct, versus modelled, mortality data to assign priorities and to assess progress. Properly done, DCP could be as important over the next 25 years as it has been in the past 25 years

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Slum Women in Indore City, India

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    Three hundred twelve mothers of infants aged 2-4 months in 11 slums of Indore, India, were interviewed to assess birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPACR) among them. The mothers were asked whether they followed the desired four steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, and saved money for emergency. Taking at least three steps was considered being well-prepared. Taking two or less steps was considered being less-prepared. One hundred forty-nine mothers (47.8%) were well-prepared. Factors associated with well-preparedness were assessed using adjusted multivariate models. Factors associated with well-preparedness were maternal literacy [odds ratio (OR)=1.9, (95%) confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.4] and availing of antenatal services (OR=1.7, CI 1.05-2.8). Deliveries in the slum-home were high (56.4%). Among these, skilled attendance was low (7.4%); 77.3% of them were assisted by traditional birth attendants. Skilled attendance during delivery was three times higher in well-prepared mothers compared to less-prepared mothers (OR: 3.0, CI 1.6-5.4) Antenatal outreach sessions can be used for promoting BPACR. It will be important to increase the competency of slum-based traditional birth attendants, along with promoting institutional deliveries

    Controlling measles using supplemental immunization activities: A mathematical model to inform optimal policy

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    AbstractBackgroundThe Measles & Rubella Initiative, a broad consortium of global health agencies, has provided support to measles-burdened countries, focusing on sustaining high coverage of routine immunization of children and supplementing it with a second dose opportunity for measles vaccine through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We estimate optimal scheduling of SIAs in countries with the highest measles burden.MethodsWe develop an age-stratified dynamic compartmental model of measles transmission. We explore the frequency of SIAs in order to achieve measles control in selected countries and two Indian states with high measles burden. Specifically, we compute the maximum allowable time period between two consecutive SIAs to achieve measles control.ResultsOur analysis indicates that a single SIA will not control measles transmission in any of the countries with high measles burden. However, regular SIAs at high coverage levels are a viable strategy to prevent measles outbreaks. The periodicity of SIAs differs between countries and even within a single country, and is determined by population demographics and existing routine immunization coverage.ConclusionsOur analysis can guide country policymakers deciding on the optimal scheduling of SIA campaigns and the best combination of routine and SIA vaccination to control measles
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