7 research outputs found

    Thermophilin 13, a Nontypical Antilisterial Poration Complex Bacteriocin, That Functions without a Receptor

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    A novel broad host range antimicrobial substance, Thermophilin 13, has been isolated and purified from the growth medium of Streptococcus thermophilus. Thermophilin 13 is composed of the antibacterial peptide ThmA (Mr of 5776) and the enhancing factor ThmB (Mr of 3910); the latter peptide increased the activity of ThmA ~40 ×. Both peptides are encoded by a single operon, and an equimolar ratio was optimal for Thermophilin 13 activity. Despite the antilisterial activity of Thermophilin 13, neither ThmA nor ThmB contain the YGNGV-C consensus sequence of Listeria-active peptides, and post-translational modifications comparable to that in the lantibiotics are also absent. Mass spectrometry did reveal the apparent oxidation of methionines in ThmA, which resulted in a peptide that could not be enhanced any longer by ThmB, whereas the intrinsic bactericidal activity was normal. Thermophilin 13 dissipated the membrane potential and the pH gradient in liposomes, and this activity was independent of membrane components from a sensitive strain (e.g. lipid or proteinaceous receptor). Models of possible poration complexes formed are proposed on the basis of sequence comparisons, structure predictions, and the functional analysis of Thermophilin 13.

    Development of a multiplex non-radioactive receptor assay:the benzodiazepine receptor, the serotonin transporter and the beta-adrenergic receptor

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    Binding assays still form a fundamental part of modem drug development. Receptor binding assays are mostly based on radioactivity because of their speed, ease of use and reproducibility. Disadvantages, such as health hazards and production of radioactive waste, have prompted the development of non-radioactive receptor binding assays. This application therefore focuses on measuring receptor-ligand interactions using mass spectrometry. Moreover, the novelty of this approach originates in determining multiple analytes in a single assay (multiplexing). The proof of principle of a non-radioactive multiplex receptor assay is demonstrated using a pool of receptors from rat cortical tissue with flunitrazepam, MADAM and pindolol in one vial with or without their respective displacers. Flunitrazepam, MADAM and pindolol bound specifically at 73%, 30% and 40% to their respective receptors. This corresponds to specific binding sites of 0.61 pmol/mg protein, 0.07 pmol/mg protein and 0.06 pmol/mg protein, respectively. We propose to measure the bound fraction instead of the free fraction in order to reach a significant difference in measured signals (total binding versus non-specific binding). The bound fraction can be obtained after dissociating the ligand from the receptor-ligand complex using 50% methanol in water. The current setup of the assay calls for further improvement with respect to the measurement of binding constants for a multitude of receptors in one assay with sufficient accuracy and precision. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

    Histidine 289 Is Essential for Hydrolysis of the Alkyl-enzyme Intermediate of Haloalkane Dehalogenase

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    Haloalkane dehalogenase (DhlA) from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of carbon-halogen bonds in a broad range of halogenated aliphatic compounds. Previous work has shown that Asp124, which is located close to the internal substrate-binding cavity, carries out a nucleophilic attack on the C-α of the alkylhalide, displacing the halogen. The resulting alkyl-enzyme intermediate is subsequently hydrolyzed. In order to study the role of His289 in the hydrolysis of the intermediate, a His289 → Gln mutant was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The purified mutant enzyme was not catalytically active with haloalkanes, but a halide burst stoichiometric to the amount of enzyme was observed with 1,2-dibromoethane. Using ion spray mass spectrometry, accumulation of the covalent alkyl-enzyme and binding of the alkyl moiety of the substrate to an Asp124-containing tryptic peptide were shown. Fluorescence-quenching experiments indicated that halide ions are strongly bound by the alkyl-enzyme but not by the substrate-free enzyme. The results show that His289 is the base catalyst for the dealkylation of the covalent intermediate, but that it is not essential for the initial nucleophilic attack of Asp124 on the C-1 atom of the haloalkane. Furthermore, the halide ion that is released in the first step probably leaves the active site only after hydrolysis of the alkyl-enzyme.

    PvdP Is a Tyrosinase That Drives Maturation of the Pyoverdine Chromophore in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    The iron binding siderophore pyoverdine constitutes a major adaptive factor contributing to both virulence and survival in fluorescent pseudomonads. For decades, pyoverdine production has allowed the identification and classification of fluorescent and nonfluorescent pseudomonads. Here, we demonstrate that PvdP, a periplasmic enzyme of previously unknown function, is a tyrosinase required for the maturation of the pyoverdine chromophore in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PvdP converts the nonfluorescent ferribactin, containing two iron binding groups, into a fluorescent pyoverdine, forming a strong hexadentate complex with ferrous iron, by three consecutive oxidation steps. PvdP represents the first characterized member of a small family of tyrosinases present in fluorescent pseudomonads that are required for siderophore maturation and are capable of acting on large peptidic substrates

    Aqueous Oxidative Heck Reaction as a Protein-Labeling Strategy

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    An increasing number of chemical reactions are being employed for bio-orthogonal ligation of detection labels to protein-bound functional groups. Several of these strategies, however, are limited in their application to pure proteins and are ineffective in complex biological samples such as cell lysates. Here we present the palladium-catalyzed oxidative Heck reaction as a new and robust bio-orthogonal strategy for linking functionalized arylboronic acids to protein-bound alkenes in high yields and with excellent chemoselectivity even in the presence of complex protein mixtures from living cells. Advantageously, this reaction proceeds under aerobic conditions, whereas most other metal-catalyzed reactions require inert atmosphere.

    Therapeutic resistance to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition is related to pharmacodynamic and -kinetic factors in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

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    Proteinuria plays a pathogenic role in the development of end stage renal disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors lower proteinuria and are renoprotective. However, large inter-individual variation in antiproteinuric response to ACE inhibitors exists. In this study, we explored the mechanism of therapeutic resistance to an ACE inhibitor in the rat 5/6 nephrectomy model. At week 6 after 5/6 nephrectomy, treatment with lisinopril was initiated for 6 weeks. Proteinuria and blood pressure were evaluated weekly. At the end of the experiment, rats were divided into tertiles according to their antiproteinuric response: (1) responders (n=9), (2) intermediate responders (n=8) and (3) non-responders to ACE inhibitor therapy (n=9). At the start of treatment, proteinuria had progressively increased to 154 (95% confidence interval [Cl]: 123-185) mg/24 It in the entire cohort, with comparable proteinuria and blood pressure in all groups. Following treatment with ACE inhibitor, proteinuria was significantly lower in the responders (68, Cl: 46-89 mg/24 h) compared to the non-responders (25 1, CI: 83-420) mg/24 h). Similarly, blood pressure was reduced in the responders, but unaffected in the non-responders. At autopsy, renal ACE activity and renal ACE expression were significantly lower in the responders compared to the non-responders. Although lisinopril intake was comparable in all animals, urinary drug excretion was increased in the non-responders, demonstrating increased drug clearance. Average urinary lisinopril excretion was correlated with antiproteinuric response (R-2=0.32, P=0.003). In conclusion, both pharmacodynamic and -kinetic factors account for the non-response to lisinopril. Whether these can be overcome simply by increasing drug dosage in non-responders should be investigated. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved