458 research outputs found

    Tangled Nature: A model of emergent structure and temporal mode among co-evolving agents

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    Understanding systems level behaviour of many interacting agents is challenging in various ways, here we'll focus on the how the interaction between components can lead to hierarchical structures with different types of dynamics, or causations, at different levels. We use the Tangled Nature model to discuss the co-evolutionary aspects connecting the microscopic level of the individual to the macroscopic systems level. At the microscopic level the individual agent may undergo evolutionary changes due to mutations of strategies. The micro-dynamics always run at a constant rate. Nevertheless, the system's level dynamics exhibit a completely different type of intermittent abrupt dynamics where major upheavals keep throwing the system between meta-stable configurations. These dramatic transitions are described by a log-Poisson time statistics. The long time effect is a collectively adapted of the ecological network. We discuss the ecological and macroevolutionary consequences of the adaptive dynamics and briefly describe work using the Tangled Nature framework to analyse problems in economics, sociology, innovation and sustainabilityComment: Invited contribution to Focus on Complexity in European Journal of Physics. 25 page, 1 figur

    Comparison of treatment with insulin degludec and glargine U100 in patients with type 1 diabetes prone to nocturnal severe hypoglycaemia:The HypoDeg randomized, controlled, open-label, crossover trial

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    AIM: To investigate whether the long‐acting insulin analogue insulin degludec compared with insulin glargine U100 reduces the risk of nocturnal symptomatic hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Adults with T1D and at least one episode of nocturnal severe hypoglycaemia during the last 2 years were included in a 2‐year prospective, randomized, open, multicentre, crossover trial. A total of 149 patients were randomized 1:1 to basal‐bolus therapy with insulin degludec and insulin aspart or insulin glargine U100 and insulin aspart. Each treatment period lasted 1 year and consisted of 3 months of run‐in or crossover followed by 9 months of maintenance. The primary endpoint was the number of blindly adjudicated nocturnal symptomatic hypoglycaemic episodes. Secondary endpoints included the occurrence of severe hypoglycaemia. We analysed all endpoints by intention‐to‐treat. RESULTS: Treatment with insulin degludec resulted in a 28% (95% CI: 9%‐43%; P = .02) relative rate reduction (RRR) of nocturnal symptomatic hypoglycaemia at level 1 (≤3.9 mmol/L), a 37% (95% CI: 16%‐53%; P = .002) RRR at level 2 (≤3.0 mmol/L), and a 35% (95% CI: 1%‐58%; P = .04) RRR in all‐day severe hypoglycaemia compared with insulin glargine U100. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T1D prone to nocturnal severe hypoglycaemia have lower rates of nocturnal symptomatic hypoglycaemia and all‐day severe hypoglycaemia with insulin degludec compared with insulin glargine U100

    How a spin-glass remembers. Memory and rejuvenation from intermittency data: an analysis of temperature shifts

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    The memory and rejuvenation aspects of intermittent heat transport are explored theoretically and by numerical simulation for Ising spin glasses with short-ranged interactions. The theoretical part develops a picture of non-equilibrium glassy dynamics recently introduced by the authors. Invoking the concept of marginal stability, this theory links irreversible `intermittent' events, or `quakes' to thermal fluctuations of record magnitude. The pivotal idea is that the largest energy barrier b(tw,T)b(t_w,T) surmounted prior to twt_w by thermal fluctuations at temperature TT determines the rate rq1/twr_q \propto 1/t_w of the intermittent events occurring near twt_w. The idea leads to a rate of intermittent events after a negative temperature shift given by rq1/tweffr_q \propto 1/t_w^{eff}, where the `effective age' twefftwt_w^{eff} \geq t_w has an algebraic dependence on twt_w, whose exponent contains the temperatures before and after the shift. The analytical expression is verified by numerical simulations. Marginal stability suggests that a positive temperature shift TTT \to T' could erase the memory of the barrier b(tw,T)b(t_w,T). The simulations show that the barrier b(tw,T)b(tw,T)b(t_w,T') \geq b(t_w,T) controls the intermittent dynamics, whose rate is hence rq1/twr_q \propto 1/t_w. Additional `rejuvenation' effects are also identified in the intermittency data for shifts of both signs.Comment: Revised introduction and discussion. Final version to appear in Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experimen

    Aging and memory phenomena in magnetic and transport properties of vortex matter: a brief review

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    There is mounting experimental evidence that strong off-equilibrium phenomena, such as ``memory'' or ``aging'' effects, play a crucial role in the physics of vortices in type II superconductors. We give a short review, based on a recently introduced schematic vortex model, of current progresses in understanding out of equilibrium vortex behaviours. We develop a unified description of ``memory'' phenomena in magnetic and transport properties, such as magnetisation loops and their ``anomalous'' 2nd peak, logarithmic creep, ``anomalous'' finite creep rate in the limit of vanishing temperature, ``memory'' and ``irreversibility'' in I-V characteristics, time dependent critical currents, ``rejuvenation'' and ``aging'' of the system response.Comment: updated versio