23 research outputs found

    Transcription Factor ATF4 Induces NLRP1 Inflammasome Expression during Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

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    <div><p>Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis triggers the ER stress response (also known as Unfolded Protein Response), a hallmark of many pathological disorders. However the connection between ER stress and inflammation remains largely unexplored. Recent data suggest that ER stress controls the activity of inflammasomes, key signaling platforms that mediate innate immune responses. Here we report that expression of NLRP1, a core inflammasome component, is specifically up-regulated during severe ER stress conditions in human cell lines. Both IRE1α and PERK, but not the ATF6 pathway, modulate <i>NLRP1</i> gene expression. Furthermore, using mutagenesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing technology, we demonstrate that ATF4 transcription factor directly binds to <i>NLRP1</i> promoter during ER stress. Although involved in different types of inflammatory responses, XBP-1 splicing was not required for <i>NLRP1</i> induction. This study provides further evidence that links ER stress with innate</p></div

    A Turn-Key Approach for Large-Scale Identification of Complex Posttranslational Modifications

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    The conjugation of complex post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as glycosylation and Small Ubiquitin-like Modification (SUMOylation) to a substrate protein can substantially change the resulting peptide fragmentation pattern compared to its unmodified counterpart, making current database search methods inappropriate for the identification of tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra from such modified peptides. Traditionally it has been difficult to develop new algorithms to identify these atypical peptides because of the lack of a large set of annotated spectra from which to learn the altered fragmentation pattern. Using SUMOylation as an example, we propose a novel approach to generate large MS/MS training data from modified peptides and derive an algorithm that learns properties of PTM-specific fragmentation from such training data. Benchmark tests on data sets of varying complexity show that our method is 80–300% more sensitive than current state-of-the-art approaches. The core concepts of our method are readily applicable to developing algorithms for the identifications of peptides with other complex PTMs

    NLRP1 mRNA and protein are up-regulated upon ER stress.

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    <p>(A) Un-differentiated THP-1 cells were treated with the indicated stimuli for 6 hours. NLRP1 levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using cyclophillin A as an endogenous control. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR using a different NLRP1 primer set and GAPDH as a control is also shown. (B) HeLa cells were treated either with BFA or TG for the indicated times. NLRP1 mRNA levels were measured by qPCR and RT-PCR. Spliced and un-spliced XBP-1 forms were also evaluated by RT-PCR. (C) HCT116 cells were treated with the indicated stimuli for 24 hours. NLRP1 and NOD1 mRNA levels were measured by qPCR. (D) Cell lysates from wild-type or <i>NLRP1</i><sup><i>−/−</i></sup> HeLa, THP-1 and K562 cells, untreated or treated with BFA for 20 hours, were normalized for total protein content. Cell extracts were then subjected to SDS-PAGE/immunoblot analysis before and after immunoprecipitation with NLRP1 antibody. Vinculin was detected as loading control. NLRP1 mRNA levels were also measured by RT-PCR. Each panel is representative of at least three independent experiments. (DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide, TM: tunicamycin, TG: thapsigargin, MSU: monosodium urate crystals, BFA: brefeldin A, PolyI:C: polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, FLA: flagellin, MDP: muramyl dipeptide, R837: Imiquimod)</p

    Atf4 but not Xbp-1s stimulates <i>NLRP1</i> gene expression during ER stress.

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    <p>(A) HeLa cells were infected with increasing concentrations of murine Xbp-1s and Atf4 adenovirus for 24 hours and NLRP1 mRNA was measured by qPCR. (B) IRE1α, PERK, ATF6 and XBP-1s were down-regulated using siRNA in HeLa cells. Cells were treated with BFA for 20 hours and mRNA levels were measured by qPCR. IRE1α, PERK, ATF6 and XBP-1s knock-down was verified by SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Each panel is representative of at least three independent experiments.</p

    NLRP1 mRNA up-regulation is dependent on both IRE1α and PERK pathways.

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    <p>(A) IRE1α, PERK and ATF6 levels were reduced using siRNA. Upon treatment with ER stress, mRNA levels were measured by qPCR and RT-PCR. IRE1α, PERK and ATF6 knock-down was verified by SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. (B) Stably transduced HeLa cells were cultured in presence or absence of doxycycline (Dox) for 24 hours and then treated overnight with 2μM BFA. mRNA levels were measured by qPCR and RT-PCR. IRE1α, PERK and ATF6 knock-down was verified by SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Each panel is representative of at least three independent experiments.</p

    Analysis of prerequisites violations financial stability

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    Світова економічна криза 2007–2008 років і потрясіння, що охо- пили одночасно секторальні ринки кредитування, страхування, нерухомості та цінних паперів, продемонстрували, що системні ризики підтримки фінансової стабільності не були належним чином оцінені регуляторами

    Complementary Proteomic Tools for the Dissection of Apoptotic Proteolysis Events

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    Proteolysis is a key regulatory event that controls intracellular and extracellular signaling through irreversible changes in a protein’s structure that greatly alters its function. Here we describe a platform for profiling caspase substrates which encompasses two highly complementary proteomic techniquesthe first is a differential gel based approach termed Global Analyzer of SILAC-derived Substrates of Proteolysis (GASSP) and the second involves affinity enrichment of peptides containing a C-terminal aspartic acid residue. In combination, these techniques have enabled the profiling of a large cellular pool of apoptotic-mediated proteolytic events across a wide dynamic range. By applying this integrated proteomic work flow to analyze proteolytic events resulting from the induction of intrinsic apoptosis in Jurkat cells via etoposide treatment, 3346 proteins were quantified, of which 360 proteins were identified as etoposide-induced proteolytic substrates, including 160 previously assigned caspase substrates. In addition to global profiling, a targeted approach using BAX HCT116 isogenic cell lines was utilized to dissect pre- and post-mitochondrial extrinsic apoptotic cleavage events. By employing apoptotic activation with a pro-apoptotic receptor agonist (PARA), a limited set of apoptotic substrates including known caspase substrates such as BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, and novel substrates such as Basic Transcription Factor 3, TRK-fused gene protein (TFG), and p62/Sequestosome were also identified

    Complementary Proteomic Tools for the Dissection of Apoptotic Proteolysis Events

    No full text
    Proteolysis is a key regulatory event that controls intracellular and extracellular signaling through irreversible changes in a protein’s structure that greatly alters its function. Here we describe a platform for profiling caspase substrates which encompasses two highly complementary proteomic techniquesthe first is a differential gel based approach termed Global Analyzer of SILAC-derived Substrates of Proteolysis (GASSP) and the second involves affinity enrichment of peptides containing a C-terminal aspartic acid residue. In combination, these techniques have enabled the profiling of a large cellular pool of apoptotic-mediated proteolytic events across a wide dynamic range. By applying this integrated proteomic work flow to analyze proteolytic events resulting from the induction of intrinsic apoptosis in Jurkat cells via etoposide treatment, 3346 proteins were quantified, of which 360 proteins were identified as etoposide-induced proteolytic substrates, including 160 previously assigned caspase substrates. In addition to global profiling, a targeted approach using BAX HCT116 isogenic cell lines was utilized to dissect pre- and post-mitochondrial extrinsic apoptotic cleavage events. By employing apoptotic activation with a pro-apoptotic receptor agonist (PARA), a limited set of apoptotic substrates including known caspase substrates such as BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, and novel substrates such as Basic Transcription Factor 3, TRK-fused gene protein (TFG), and p62/Sequestosome were also identified

    Complementary Proteomic Tools for the Dissection of Apoptotic Proteolysis Events

    No full text
    Proteolysis is a key regulatory event that controls intracellular and extracellular signaling through irreversible changes in a protein’s structure that greatly alters its function. Here we describe a platform for profiling caspase substrates which encompasses two highly complementary proteomic techniquesthe first is a differential gel based approach termed Global Analyzer of SILAC-derived Substrates of Proteolysis (GASSP) and the second involves affinity enrichment of peptides containing a C-terminal aspartic acid residue. In combination, these techniques have enabled the profiling of a large cellular pool of apoptotic-mediated proteolytic events across a wide dynamic range. By applying this integrated proteomic work flow to analyze proteolytic events resulting from the induction of intrinsic apoptosis in Jurkat cells via etoposide treatment, 3346 proteins were quantified, of which 360 proteins were identified as etoposide-induced proteolytic substrates, including 160 previously assigned caspase substrates. In addition to global profiling, a targeted approach using BAX HCT116 isogenic cell lines was utilized to dissect pre- and post-mitochondrial extrinsic apoptotic cleavage events. By employing apoptotic activation with a pro-apoptotic receptor agonist (PARA), a limited set of apoptotic substrates including known caspase substrates such as BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, and novel substrates such as Basic Transcription Factor 3, TRK-fused gene protein (TFG), and p62/Sequestosome were also identified

    Complementary Proteomic Tools for the Dissection of Apoptotic Proteolysis Events

    No full text
    Proteolysis is a key regulatory event that controls intracellular and extracellular signaling through irreversible changes in a protein’s structure that greatly alters its function. Here we describe a platform for profiling caspase substrates which encompasses two highly complementary proteomic techniquesthe first is a differential gel based approach termed Global Analyzer of SILAC-derived Substrates of Proteolysis (GASSP) and the second involves affinity enrichment of peptides containing a C-terminal aspartic acid residue. In combination, these techniques have enabled the profiling of a large cellular pool of apoptotic-mediated proteolytic events across a wide dynamic range. By applying this integrated proteomic work flow to analyze proteolytic events resulting from the induction of intrinsic apoptosis in Jurkat cells via etoposide treatment, 3346 proteins were quantified, of which 360 proteins were identified as etoposide-induced proteolytic substrates, including 160 previously assigned caspase substrates. In addition to global profiling, a targeted approach using BAX HCT116 isogenic cell lines was utilized to dissect pre- and post-mitochondrial extrinsic apoptotic cleavage events. By employing apoptotic activation with a pro-apoptotic receptor agonist (PARA), a limited set of apoptotic substrates including known caspase substrates such as BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, and novel substrates such as Basic Transcription Factor 3, TRK-fused gene protein (TFG), and p62/Sequestosome were also identified
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